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Review Article
COVID-19 among infants: key clinical features and remaining controversies
Nevio Cimolai
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2024;67(1):1-16.   Published online November 27, 2023
· Clinical studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in infants should be supported by rigorous laboratory diagnostic criteria.
· Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spreads to infants similarly to other viral respiratory infections.
· Among infants ≤1 year of age beyond the immediate postpartum period, COVID-19 is relatively mild, but even the low risk of severe disease requires prevention.
· Comorbidities increase infection vulnerability and complications in infants.
· Clinical and laboratory data do not sufficiently distinguish COVID-19 from other respiratory viral infections.
· Coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 is uncommon among infants.
· Unique infection sequelae, including multi-inflammatory syndrome in children and neonates and long COVID require further study and refinement of diagnostic criteria.
· Infection control standards applied to mother-infant dyads should be tempered by standard preventive strategies, maternal input, accommodation potential, and overall safety.
· Maternal vaccination prevents disease in early infancy.
Epidemiology and surveillance implications of community-acquired pneumonia in children
Eui Jeong Roh, Jung Yeon Shim, Eun Hee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(12):563-573.   Published online October 17, 2022
The identification of the causative pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia and appropriate treatment and prevention can reduce mortality and the socioeconomic burden by reducing the medical expenses. The world has been in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic since 2020, and there is always a risk of continuous emergence and epidemic of new respiratory infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to sustain a monitoring system for respiratory infectious diseases including pneumonia.
Review article
Systematic review of literature and analysis of big data from the National Health Insurance System on primary immunodeficiencies in Korea
Sohee Son, Ji-Man Kang, Younsoo Hahn, Kangmo Ahn, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):141-148.   Published online July 13, 2020
In this article, a systematic review of reported primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) cases in Korea was performed and we attempted to estimate the number of PID patients and healthcare costs for the first time in Korea. Our review revealed that Korean PID cases are greatly underreported in the literature based on health insurance. Physicians in the field and health care policymakers should be aware of the disease burden of PID.
Review Article
Reality of Kawasaki disease epidemiology
Gi Beom Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):292-296.   Published online July 9, 2019
Epidemiologic studies of Kawasaki disease (KD) have shown a new pattern or change of its occurrence suggestive of its pathophysiology or risk factors from the first patient with KD reported in 1961. The incidence of KD in Northeast Asian countries including Japan, South Korea, China, and Taiwan is 10–30 times higher than that in the United States and Europe. Knowing...
Original Article
Clinical and laboratory profiles of hospitalized children with acute respiratory virus infection
Eunjin Choi, Kee-Soo Ha, Dae Jin Song, Jung Hwa Lee, Kwang Chul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(6):180-186.   Published online June 25, 2018

Despite the availability of molecular methods, identification of the causative virus in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has proven difficult as the same viruses are often detected in asymptomatic children.


Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect 15 common respiratory viruses in children under 15 years of age who were hospitalized with ARI between January 2013...

Characteristics and prognosis of hepatic cytomegalovirus infection in children: 10 years of experience at a university hospital in Korea
Chae-Yeon Min, Joo Young Song, Su Jin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(8):261-265.   Published online August 14, 2017

Studies on cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in immunocompetent children are lacking, and minimal information is available in the medical literature on hepatic manifestations and complications of CMV. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and prognosis of children with CMV hepatitis, and to investigate its prevalence at a single medical center in Korea over a...

Epidemiological comparison of three Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia epidemics in a single hospital over 10 years
Eun-Kyung Kim, You-Sook Youn, Jung-Woo Rhim, Myung-Seok Shin, Jin-Han Kang, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(5):172-177.   Published online May 22, 2015

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia epidemics have occurred in 3- to 4-year cycles in Korea. We evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics of MP pneumonia in Daejeon, Korea, from 2003 to 2012.


We retrospectively analyzed 779 medical records of children (0-15 years of old) with MP pneumonia admitted to our institution and compared the data from 3 recent epidemics.


In 779 patients, the mean age...

Changes of clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with Kawasaki disease over the past 7 years in a single center study
Hye Jin Kang, Gee Na Kim, Hong Ryang Kil
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(9):389-395.   Published online September 30, 2013

This single-center study was conducted to assess the changes in epidemiological and clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) over the past 7 years.


This retrospective study included 135 children with KD, admitted to Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, between 2004 and 2005 (group A, n=53) and between 2011 and 2012 (group B, n=82). Medical records were reviewed...

Review Article
Current status of measles in the Republic of Korea: an overview of case-based and seroepidemiological surveillance scheme
Young June Choe, Geun-Ryang Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(12):455-461.   Published online December 20, 2012

Following the Five Year Measles Elimination Program, measles has been declared eliminated from the Republic of Korea since 2006. However, there remain challenges related to the surveillance of measles in the postelimination phase. Even though the routine surveillance system has revealed a gradual decrease in the number of reported cases since 2002, 4 resurgences have occurred, notably due to outbreaks....

Original Article
Birth statistics of high birth weight infants (macrosomia) in Korea
Byung-Ho Kang, Joo-Young Moon, Sung-Hoon Chung, Yong-Sung Choi, Kyung-Suk Lee, Ji-Young Chang, Chong-Woo Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(8):280-285.   Published online August 23, 2012

The authors analyzed the trend from the birth-related statistics of high birth weight infants (HBWIs) over 50 years in Korea from 1960 to 2010.


We used 2 data sources, namely, the hospital units (1960's to 1990's) and Statistics Korea (1993 to 2010). The analyses include the incidence of HBWIs, birth weight distribution, sex ratio, and the relationship of HBWI to maternal...

Epidemiology of Kawasaki disease in infants 3 months of age and younger
Eun Jung Lee, Yong Won Park, Young Mi Hong, Joon Sung Lee, Ji Whan Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(6):202-205.   Published online June 21, 2012

This study investigated the epidemiology of Kawasaki disease (KD) in infants ≤3-month-old.


To study the epidemiology of KD in Korea, data for 27,851 KD patients were collected on a 3-year basis between 2000 and 2008 in a retrospective survey. From this, data for 609 KD patients ≤3-month-old were analyzed and compared with the data for KD patients >3-month-old.


The 609 KD patients...

Review Article
Epidemiology of astrovirus infection in children
Hye Sook Jeong, Ahyong Jeong, Doo-Sung Cheon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(3):77-82.   Published online March 16, 2012

Human astrovirus (HAstV) is a major cause of acute diarrhea among children, resulting in outbreaks of diarrhea and occasionally hospitalization. Improved surveillance and application of sensitive molecular diagnostics have further defined the impact of HAstV infections in children. These studies have shown that HAstV infections are clinically milder (diarrhea, vomiting, fever) than infections with other enteric agents. Among the 8...

Changes in the neonatal and infant mortality rate and the causes of death in Korea
Sung-Hoon Chung, Yong-Sung Choi, Chong-Woo Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(11):443-455.   Published online November 30, 2011

Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) or infant mortality rate (IMR) are the rate of deaths per 1,000 live births at which babies of either less than four weeks or of one year of age die, respectively. The NMR and IMR are commonly accepted as a measure of the general health and wellbeing of a population. Korea's NMR and IMR fell significantly...

Original Article
Multiple births conceived by assisted reproductive technology in Korea
Young Sil Park, Sun Hee Choi, Kye Shik Shim, Ji Young Chang, Won Ho Hahn, Yong Sung Choi, Chong-Woo Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(10):880-885.   Published online October 31, 2010

The recent trends of multiple births (MBs) conceived by assisted reproductive technology (ART) in Korea were analyzed as well as the relationship with maternal age, especially advanced maternal age.


Data were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service and annual ART reports from the ART committee of the Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.


MBs increased from the early 1990s; there was...

Review Article
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and sequelae
Sun Jung Chang, Kyu Young Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(10):863-871.   Published online October 31, 2010

The prevalence of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is approximately 3% in children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common cause of OSAS in children, and obesity, hypotonic neuromuscular diseases, and craniofacial anomalies are other major risk factors. Snoring is the most common presenting complaint in children with OSAS, but the clinical presentation varies according to age. Agitated sleep with...

Recent progress in the understanding of clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Beyong Il Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(1):6-13.   Published online January 15, 2009
Recent advances in perinatal care have resulted in improved survival of extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI). However, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remains one of the major complications in ELBWI. BPD was originally described over 40 years ago; the clinical characteristics, epidemiology, and pathogenesis of BPD have changed markedly through this period. In this article, I have reviewed recent progress in...
Original Article
Epidemiologic study of Kawasaki disease in 6 months old and younger infants
Yong Won Park, Ji Whan Han, In Sook Park, Chang Hwi Kim, Sung Ho Cha, Jae Sook Ma, Joon Sung Lee, Tae Chan Kwon, Sang Bum Lee, Chul Ho Kim, Heung Jae Lee, Yong Soo Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(12):1320-1323.   Published online December 15, 2008
Purpose : The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic status of Kawasaki disease (KD) in infants ≤6 months of age. Methods : For the epidemiologic study of KD in Korea, data from 22,674 KD patients were collected from 1997 to 2005 on a 3-year basis by a retrospective survey. From this survey, data of 1,739 KD patients ≤6...
Incidence of congenital heart disease in the western part of Gyeongnam Province in Korea
Sun Hwa Jang, Jae Hui Kim, Jung Sook Yeom, Eun Sil Park, Ji Hyun Seo, Jae Young Lim, Chan Hoo Park, Hyang Ok Woo, Hee Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(8):848-855.   Published online August 15, 2008
Purpose : The objective of this study was to ascertain the incidence of congenital heart disease in the western part of Gyeongnam Province in Korea. Methods : We enrolled 849 children (M:F=390:459) who were diagnosed with congenital heart disease (CHD) and received echocardiography during January 1997 to December 2005 in Gyeongsang National University Hospital. The subjects were limited to patients born...
Review Article
The epidemiology and present status of chronic hepatitis B in Korean children
Byung-Ho Choe
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(7):696-703.   Published online July 15, 2008
Korea is now classified as an area of intermediate endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), due to the implementation of universal HBV vaccination and national preventive programs for HBV infection. A national program of HBV vaccination was launched in Korea in 1988 for school-going children and was listed on a vaccination guideline in 1991. In 1995, universal vaccination for newborn...
Current status of hepatitis A virus infections in Korea
Hee-Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(7):690-695.   Published online July 15, 2008
The age-specific anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence rates in South Korea have changed markedly since the last 2030 years with an improvement in the socio-economic, housing, and environmental-sanitation conditions. These changes are characterized by very low anti-HAV seropositive rates among individuals less than 30 years of age; however, nowadays, most adolescents and young adults at an increased risk of developing...
Original Article
An epidemiological study on enuresis in children of two elementary schools in Suwon
Hyun Jung Lee, Kang Gyoon Lee, Eun Jin Kim, Ki-Soo Pai, Sang Don Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(5):518-522.   Published online May 15, 2008
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of enuresis in association with voiding habits and socioeconomic status in elementary school children. Methods : A dynamic survey was done of 1,514 students from two elementary schools in Suwon, Korea in December 2006. Data regarding gender, age, height and weight, voiding habits, and monthly family incomes were...
Review Article
Epidemiology of Kawasaki disease in Korea
Yong Won Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(5):452-456.   Published online May 15, 2008
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, self-limited vasculitis of unknown etiology that occurs predominantly in infants and young children. Initially described in 1967 by Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki, it is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease among children in developed nations. Although KD has been reported across all racial and ethnic groups, the incidence of KD is more...
Original Article
Clinical and Epidemiologic Study of Kawasaki Disease in Children 8 Years of Age and Older
Yong Won Park, Ji Whan Han, In Sook Park, Chang Hwi Kim, Sung Ho Cha, Jae Sook Ma, Tae Chan Kwon, Sang Bum Lee, Chul Ho Kim, Heung Jae Lee, Yong Soo Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(10):1139-1142.   Published online October 15, 2005
Purpose : The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic and clinical profiles of Kawasaki disease(KD) in children 8 years of age and older. Methods : For the epidemiologic study of KD in Korea, data of total 15,692 KD patients were collected from 1994 to 2002 on a 3 year basis, by the retrospective survey. Among them, data of...
Clinico-epidemiologic Study of Henoch-Sch nlein Purpura in Children, 1987 through 2003
Sun-Mee Choi, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):174-177.   Published online February 15, 2005
Purpose : We evaluated children with Henoch-Sch nlein purpura(HSP) in terms of epidemiology and clinical characteristics. Methods : A total of 424 medical records of children with HSP admitted to The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital, from 1987 to 2003 were retrospectively analyzed. Results : The mean annual number of cases was 25.1?.9 and no one year showed an...
Clinico-epidemiologic Study of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia(1993 through 2003)
Seung-Hyun Lee, Suk-Man Noh, Kyung-Yil Lee, Hyung-Shin Lee, Ja-Hyun Hong, Mi-Hee Lee, Joon-Sung Lee, Byung-Chul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(2):154-157.   Published online February 15, 2005
Purpose : We evaluated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of mycoplasma pneumonia. Methods : A total of 559 medical records of children with mycoplasma pneumonia admitted to The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital, were retrospectively analyzed. Results : The mean annual number of cases was 51. There was a higher occurrence in autumn (September-November, 41.7%) and in winter(26.7%). Outbreaks...
Prevalence of Antibodies against Adenoviruses in Korean Children and Adults
Hyun Oh Jang, Jin A Lee, Nam Hee Kim, Eun Hee Chung, Hoan Jong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(12):1300-1305.   Published online December 15, 2004
Purpose : Adenoviruses(Ads) are responsible for approximately 10 percent of lower respiratory tract infections(LRTIs) in children. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies (Abs) against common serotypes of Ads in Korean children and adults. Methods : The sera were tested for neutralizing Abs against Ad serotypes 1 through 7 and 21 with a colorimetric microneutralization assay...
Epidemiologic Study of Aseptic Meningitis in Daejeon, Korea(1987 through 2003)
Jung-Hoon You, Kyung-Yil Lee, Hyung-Shin Lee, Ja-Hyun Hong, Mi-Hee Lee, Byung-Chul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(11):1181-1185.   Published online November 15, 2004
Purpose : To evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics of aseptic meningitis in Daejeon, Korea from 1987 to 2003. Methods : A total of 2201 medical records of children with aseptic meningitis admitted to the Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon St. Mary's Hospital, was retrospectively analyzed. Results : The mean annual number of cases was 129, with a higher rate of occurrence in the...
An Epidemiological Study on Refractory Enterobiasis
Hyea Sook Ryue, Jo-Won Jung, Ki-Soo Pai
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(2):177-182.   Published online February 15, 2004
Purpose : In order to render substantial solutions to control the refractory enterobiasis, factors were evaluated which were associated with treatment failure in Enterobius vermicularis infestation. Methods : An epidemiological study was done in 20 patients with refractory entrobiasis and in 107 preschoolers as a control. The possible symptoms and hygienic habits which may associated with entrobiasis were surveyed by questionnaires. Results...
A Five-year Epidemiologic Study of Childhood Leukemia in Busan City, 1996 to 2000
Jae Hoon Moon, Soon Yong Lee, Jong Beom Sinn, Jae Sun Park, Young Ho Lee, Young Tak Lim, Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(10):972-976.   Published online October 15, 2003
Purpose : For the control of childhood leukemia, of which the mortality is still high, the basic data for the incidence has a great importance. The authors analyzed the data from 133 new patients with childhood leukemia between 1996-2000 in Busan, Korea. Methods : The data were obtained from 133 new cases(87 males and 46 females from 0 to 15 years...
Epidemiological Study of Kawasaki Disease in Kyung Nam Area
Jeong Soo Yang, Eun Young Cho, Hae Sung Jung, Ji Young Hwang, Dong-Jin Lee, Eun Suk No, Myoung-Bum Choi, Chan-Hoo Park, Hee-Shang Youn, Hyang-Ok Woo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2002;45(7):896-901.   Published online July 15, 2002
Purpose : The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology of Kawasaki disease in the Kyung Nam area and to evaluate whether the results of this epidemiological study could support infectious etiology. Methods : We sent a questionnaire to three training hospitals in the Kyung Nam area and retrospectively reviewed their medical records of Kawasaki disease from Jun....
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