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Original Article
Neurodevelopmental outcomes and comorbidities of children with congenital muscular torticollis: evaluation using the National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children database
Og Hyang Kim, Seung Won Lee, Eun Kyo Ha, Ju Hee Kim, Yun Hye Jo, Seongyeong Rhie, Man Yong Han, Kyu Young Chae
Received September 14, 2021  Accepted November 5, 2021  
Question: What comorbidities are increased in children with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT)? Are there differences in the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with CMT who received physical therapy versus those who did not?
Finding: The risk of congenital musculoskeletal deformities is increased in CMT. Children who did not receive physical therapy were at greater risk of neurodevelopmental delay.
Meaning: In CMT, musculoskeletal comorbidities should be identified and active early treatment provided.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.01417    [Epub ahead of print]
Other
Risk factors and screening timing for developmental dysplasia of the hip in preterm infants
Ga Won Jeon, Hye Jung Choo, Yong Uk Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):262-268.   Published online November 5, 2021
Question: When is the best screening timing and what is the risk factor for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preterm infants?
Finding: Ultrasonography performed earlier than 38 weeks of postmenstrual age caused unnecessary subsequent ultrasonography. DDH did not occur predominantly on the left side or in breech infants.
Meaning: The screening timing, etiology, and risk factors for DDH in preterm infants are somewhat different from those in term infants.
Review Article
Neurology
Worldwide national intervention of developmental screening programs in infant and early childhood
Seunghyo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):10-20.   Published online September 30, 2021
∙ Prevalence rate of developmental disabilities has been reported from 8% to 15% and its rate is increasing worldwide.
∙ The critical period of intervention for developmental delay is before the child reaches 3 years of age.
∙ All primary care pediatricians should conduct developmental surveillance and screening tests to infants and children at scheduled visits. Through this, they are liable for providing early identification and timely intervention.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Growth patterns of preterm infants in Korea
Joohee Lim, So Jin Yoon, Soon Min Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):1-9.   Published online July 8, 2021
∙ The growth of preterm infants is a main focus of neonatology.
∙ Preterm infants in Korea, especially those with a very low birth weight, achieve retarded growth.
∙ Careful growth monitoring and early intervention will contribute to better development outcomes and quality of life for preterm infants and improve public health.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Gross motor dysfunction and balance impairments in children and adolescents with Down syndrome: a systematic review
Preyal D. Jain, Akshatha Nayak, Shreekanth D. Karnad, Kaiorisa N. Doctor
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):142-149.   Published online June 11, 2021
Question: What are the primary motor and balance dysfunctions in children with Down syndrome?
Finding: These individuals have gross delays, altered balance, and inefficient compensatory mechanisms.
Meaning: Neuromuscular and musculoskeletal impairments due to the chromosomal abnormality lead to developmental delay. These children also exhibit poor balance with greater instability and inefficient compensatory mechanisms including altered center of pressure displacement and trunk stiffening that predisposes them to falls.
Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Obesity and chronic kidney disease: prevalence, mechanism, and management
Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):511-518.   Published online April 6, 2021
· Obesity is strongly associated with the development and progression of chronic kidney disease.
· Altered renal hemodynamics, metabolic effects, and lipid nephrotoxicity may play a key role in the development of obesity-related kidney disease.
· Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of developing obesity and chronic kidney disease later in life.
· A multilevel approach is needed to prevent obesity and related chronic diseases.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Neurodevelopmental outcomes of very low birth weight infants in the Neonatal Research Network of Japan: importance of neonatal intensive care unit graduate follow-up
Yumi Kono; on behalf of the Neonatal Research Network of Japan
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):313-321.   Published online November 9, 2020
· Very low birth weight infants remain at high risk of developing neurodevelopmental impairments in early childhood.
· It is important to establish a network follow-up protocol and complete assessments with fewer dropouts to enable clarification of the outcomes of registered infants.
· All possible strategies should be employed to maintain good compliance after neonatal intensive care unit discharge.
Other
Review of epidemiological studies on air pollution and health effects in children
Jong-Tae Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):3-11.   Published online June 10, 2020
This review summarized the accumulated epidemiologic evidence with emphasis on studies conducted in Korea and heterogeneity in the literature. Based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there is consistent evidence on the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and children’s health, especially respiratory health and adverse birth outcomes, and growing evidence on neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Development of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST)
Hee Jung Chung, Donghwa Yang, Gun-Ha Kim, Sung Koo Kim, Seoung Woo Kim, Young Key Kim, Young Ah Kim, Joon Sik Kim, Jin Kyung Kim, Cheongtag Kim, In-Kyung Sung, Son Moon Shin, Kyung Ja Oh, Hee-Jeong Yoo, Hee Joon Yu, Seoung-Joon Lim, Jeehun Lee, Hae-Ik Jeong, Jieun Choi, Jeong-Yi Kwon, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(11):438-446.   Published online May 14, 2020
Question: Can the Korean Developmental Screening Test for Infants and Children (K-DST) be a useful screening tool for infants and children in Korea?
Finding: The K-DST has high reliability (internal consistency of 0.73–0.93, test-retest reliability of 0.77–0.88) and a high discriminatory ability with a sensitivity of 0.833 and specificity of 0.979.
Meaning: The K-DST is an effective and reliable screening tool for infants and children with neurodevelopmental disorders in Korea.
Review Article
Neurology
Genetic tests by next-generation sequencing in children with developmental delay and/or intellectual disability
Ji Yoon Han, In Goo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(6):195-202.   Published online November 4, 2019
Developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) techogies have assisted in clarifying the diagnosis and treatment of developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID) via molecular genetic testing. Advances in DNA sequencing technology have not only allowed the evolution of targeted panels but also, and more currently enabled genome-wide analyses to progress from research era to clinical practice. Broad acceptance of accuracy- guided targeted gene...
Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Validity of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for very-low-birth-weight infants
Chae Young Kim, Euiseok Jung, Byong Sop Lee, Ki-Soo Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):187-192.   Published online March 20, 2019

Purpose: The importance of the neurodevelopmental outcomes of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants has been emphasized as their mortality rate has markedly improved. This study aimed to assess the validity of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST), a developmental screening tool approved by the Korean Society of Pediatrics, for the timely diagnosis of neurodevelopmental delay in VLBW infants. Methods: Subjects included VLBW infants...
Usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for infants and children for the evaluation of developmental delay in Korean infants and children: a single-center study
Chung-Hyuk Yim, Gun-Ha Kim, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(10):312-319.   Published online October 20, 2017
Purpose

To evaluate the usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) for infants and children for developmental delay assessment.

Methods

This study was based on retrospective studies of the results of the K-DST, Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive...

Application of array comparative genomic hybridization in Korean children under 6 years old with global developmental delay
Kyung Yeon Lee, Eunsim Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(9):282-289.   Published online September 21, 2017
Purpose

Recent advancements in molecular techniques have greatly contributed to the discovery of genetic causes of unexplained developmental delay. Here, we describe the results of array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the clinical features of 27 patients with global developmental delay.

Methods

We included 27 children who fulfilled the following criteria: Korean children under 6 years with global developmental delay; children who had...

Review Article
Neurology
Malformations of cortical development: genetic mechanisms and diagnostic approach
Jeehun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(1):1-9.   Published online January 31, 2017

Malformations of cortical development are rare congenital anomalies of the cerebral cortex, wherein patients present with intractable epilepsy and various degrees of developmental delay. Cases show a spectrum of anomalous cortical formations with diverse anatomic and morphological abnormalities, a variety of genetic causes, and different clinical presentations. Brain magnetic resonance imaging has been of great help in determining the exact...

Original Article
Neurology
Single-center experience of the Korean-Developmental Screening Test for infants and children
Chae-Ri Suh, Su Ye Sohn, Gun-Ha Kim, Seong-Kwan Jung, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(12):483-489.   Published online December 31, 2016
Purpose

We investigated the number of test takers of the Korean-Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) in a single children's hospital within a year, according to age, referral rate, and follow-up percentage.

Methods

For this study, 4,062 children who visited and received K-DST at Woorisoa Children's Hospital between January and December 2015 were enrolled. Seven test sets were used according to the Korean National Health...

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