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Original Article
The relationship between primary headache and constipation in children and adolescents
Mi-Na Park, Min-Gyu Choi, Su Jeong You
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(2):60-63.   Published online February 28, 2015

Many patients presenting with headache also complain of constipation; the relationship between these two symptoms has not been explored in detail. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between primary headache and constipation.


This retrospective study included all children who attended the Inje University Sanggye Paik Hospital complaining of headache, and who had been followed up for at...

Long-term safety of PEG 4000 in children with chronic functional constipation: A biochemical perspective
Sun Hwan Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2010;53(7):741-744.   Published online July 31, 2010

To evaluate the long-term safety of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 in children with constipation, particularly the biochemical aspects of safety.


Medical records were evaluated, and 100 children, who had been taking PEG 4000 for more than 6 months, and who had been under clinical and biochemical monitoring, were enrolled. Ages; 6.11±3.12 years, Duration of therapy; 16.93±7.02 months, dose of PEG 4000;...

Review Article
Diagnosis and therapy for functional urinary incontinence in childhood
Ju Hyung Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(11):1147-1151.   Published online November 15, 2008
Functional urinary incontinence, the absence of any neurologic or structural abnormality as a cause of urinary incontinence in children, is one of the most common clinical problems encountered in pediatric and urologic departments, and it can be socially and emotionally distressing for the affected children. The prevalence rates of functional urinary incontinence in school-aged children are not very high and...
Urinary incontinence
Jung Won Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(11):1136-1139.   Published online November 15, 2008
The genitourinary tract and gastrointestinal system are interdependent but share the same embryological origin, pelvic region, and sacral innervation. Although children with voiding disturbances often present with bowel dysfunction, this coexistence was considered coincidental until recently. However, it is now accepted that dysfunction in emptying of both systems is interrelated. Afferent impulses carrying sensory information are transmitted through the spinal...
Original Article
Efficacy and safety of electrolytes-free polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 for disimpaction in children with chronic functional constipation
Jeong Hee Lee, Ran Lee, Sun Hwan Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2008;51(4):391-395.   Published online April 15, 2008
Purpose : This study was performed evaluate optimal dose for disimpaction, efficacy and safety of PEG 4000 in children with chronic functional constipation. Methods : Eighty six children with chronic functional constipation were enrolled in this prospective study at Konkuk university hospital March, 2003 through August, 2006. Success in disimpaction with PEG 4000 was defined as meeting at least two out...
Maintenance dose of electrolyte free polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 in Korean children with chronic functional constipation
So Hee Lee, Sun Hwan Bae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(12):1212-1216.   Published online December 15, 2007
Purpose : To determine optimal maintenance dose and to evaluation the efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG4000) in children with chronic functional constipation. Methods : This study enrolled 41 children with chronic functional constipation at the Konkuk university hospital August 2005, then June, 2007. Effective maintenance dose was designed as initial amount of PEG4000 that improved frequency, bowel movement,...
Comparison of polyethylene glycol 4000 and lactulose for treatment of chronic functional constipation in children
Ji Hyun Uhm
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(8):752-756.   Published online August 15, 2007
Purpose : The aim of this study was to compare 2 laxatives, namely, polyethylene glycol 4000 without electrolytes and lactulose, evaluating the efficacy and safety for the treatment of constipation in children. Methods : Fifty-six children with chronic functional constipation were randomly assigned to receive polyethylene glycol 4000 (24 patients) or lactulose (32 patients). Patients or their parents reported defecation frequency,...
Medical Lecture Course
Constipation in Children
Jae Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(4):355-362.   Published online April 15, 2005
Constipation is very common phenomenon during childhood that accounts approximately 3% of general pediatric outpatient visits and up to 25% of visit to the pediatric gastroenterologist. The diagnosis of functional constipation is based on the historical features and absence of physical abnormalities. Most infants and children with chronic constipation require no diagnostic tests. Constipation and subsequent fecal retention behavior often...
Original Article
A Clinical Study of Chronic Functional Constipation in Children Treated for more than Five Months
Young Min Kim, Sung Yun Choi, Sun Hwan Bae, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(11):1186-1192.   Published online November 15, 2004
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and the courses and effects of long-term treatment, and to analyze the association between clinical features and duration of therapy in chronic functional constipation in children. Methods : This study enrolled 57 children with chronic functional constipation who were treated in the Eulji Hospital for more than...
Efficacy and Safety of Polyethylene Glycol(PEG) with Electrolytes for Disimpaction in Children with Chronic Functional Constipation
Hong Seop So, Sun Hwan Bae, Hei Sun Yoon, in Soon Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(11):1089-1094.   Published online November 15, 2003
Purpose : Polyethylene glycol(PEG) with electrolytes has been used for intestinal clearance for colonoscopy and operations in children. But its efficacy and safety for disimpaction in children with chronic functional constipation has been studied little. Methods : This study enrolled 26 patients with chronic functional constipation(11 children had failed to disimpaction by conventional management at OPD) who were admitted to the...
Colonic Transit Time in Chronic Constipated Patients
Je Eun Choi, Im Jeong Choi, Jung A Lee, Sung Mi Kim, Jin Hwa Jeong, Jeong Ho Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2001;44(7):752-757.   Published online July 15, 2001
Purpose : In most instances, constipation is considered as idiopathic or functional. The total colonic transit time, traced by radio-opaque markers, makes possible the identification of the colon segment that has the motility alteration that causes constipation. We measured the total and segmental colonic transit time in children with chronic idiopathic constipation and compared the results with those without constipation...
Anogenital Index of Normal Children and Its Clinical Significance in Children with Constipation
Kyung Rye Moon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1998;41(12):1669-1674.   Published online December 15, 1998
Purpose : The purpose of this study was to find an objective criteria to determine the position of normal anus in Korean children and to evaluate the clinical significance of anterior displacement of anus in children with constipation. Methods : Three hundred and thirty-nine normal children and 24 children with idiopathic constipation represented the basis of this study. The position of the normal anus...
Constipation in Children-Colonic Transit Time and the Barr-Score
Nam-Seon Beck, I Sok Kang, Dong Kyu Jin, Munhyang Lee, Sang Il Lee, Heung Jae Lee, Bokyung Kim, Tae Sung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1997;40(10):1427-1434.   Published online October 15, 1997
Purpose : We have assessed the clinical usefulness of solid maker transit technique and Barr-score in 31 patients with idiopathic constipation (male:female; 17:14, mean age; 6.7 years, range 1.4-12 years). Methods : All patients underwent full history taking and physical examination including rectal examination. On first visit to gastroenterology clinic a plain abdominal film was taken for Barr-score which evaluated by two observers without the...
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