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Original Article
Infection
Febrile urinary tract infection in children: changes in epidemiology, etiology, and antibiotic resistance patterns over a decade
Woosuck Suh, Bi Na Kim, Hyun Mi Kang, Eun Ae Yang, Jung-Woo Rhim, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):293-300.   Published online October 14, 2020
Question: How has the antibiotic susceptibility of urinary pathogens changed and what does it imply?
Finding: A yearly increase in multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing pathogens was observed. A higher recurrence rate was observed in cases of febrile urinary tract infection caused by ESBL producers in patients with underlying vesicoureteral reflux (VUR).
Meaning: The initial empirical antibiotic should reflect the changing susceptibility patterns and underlying VUR status.
Review Article
Neurology
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorders: clinical spectrum, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment options
Yun-Jin Lee, Sang Ook Nam, Ara Ko, JuHyun Kong, Shin Yun Byun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):103-110.   Published online May 14, 2020
MOG antibody-associated disorder exhibits different pathophysiological and phenotypic findings than both aquaporin-4 antibody-associated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and typical MS. MOG-antibody is of particular interest in pediatric patients with clinical or radiological non-MS typical findings. MOG-antibody was included in a diagnostic algorithm for children recommending for the first time a standardized use in clinical practice except in cases of typical MS.
Original Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Variation in clinical usefulness of biomarkers of acute kidney injury in young children undergoing cardiac surgery
Hee Sun Baek, Youngok Lee, Hea Min Jang, Joonyong Cho, Myung Chul Hyun, Yeo Hyang Kim, Su-Kyeong Hwang, Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):151-156.   Published online February 5, 2020
Question: Can clinical usefulness of biomarkers of acute kidney injury vary on the clinical circumstances?
Finding: In young children undergoing cardiac surgery, urine KIM-1/Cr level peaked at 24 hours with significant difference from baseline level and was significantly higher at 6 hours in the AKI group. However, urine NGAL/Cr and IL-18/Cr levels showed no specific trend with time for 48 hours after cardiac surgery.
Meaning: Urine KIM-1/Cr concentration could be considered a good biomarker for early AKI prediction after open cardiac surgery in young children.
Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Acute kidney injury and continuous renal replacement therapy in children; what pediatricians need to know
Myung Hyun Cho, Hee Gyung Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(11):339-347.   Published online October 23, 2018
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by abrupt deterioration of renal function, and its diagnosis relies on creatinine measurements and urine output. AKI is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and is a risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease. There is no proven medication for AKI. Therefore, prevention and early detection are important. Physicians should be aware of...
Case Report
Neurology
A long-term subacute sclerosing panencephalitis survivor treated with intraventricular interferon-alpha for 13 years
Minsun Kwak, Hye-Ryun Yeh, Mi-Sun Yum, Hyun-Jin Kim, Su Jeong You, Tae-Sung Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(3):108-112.   Published online September 18, 2018
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare, progressive, and fatal central nervous system disorder resulting from persistent measles virus infection. Long-term data are scarce, with a maximum follow-up period of 10 years. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) is a protein that exerts its antiviral activity via enhancement of cellular immune response and is reported to be an effective drug for the treatment of...
Original Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Acute kidney injury in pediatric patients with rhabdomyolysis
Young Shin Lim, Heeyeon Cho, Sang Taek Lee, Yeonhee Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):95-100.   Published online March 19, 2018
Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical findings in pediatric rhabdomyolysis and the predictive factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in Korean children.

Methods

Medical records of 39 Korean children, who were newly diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis from January 2008 to December 2015, were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnosis was made from the medical history, elevated serum creatinine kinase level >1,000 IU/L, and plasma...

Neurology
Serum neuron specific enolase is increased in pediatric acute encephalitis syndrome
Dian Pratamastuti, Prastiya Indra Gunawan, Darto Saharso
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(9):302-306.   Published online September 21, 2017
Purpose

This study aimed to investigate whether serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was expressed in acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) that causes neuronal damage in children.

Methods

This prospective observational study was conducted in the pediatric neurology ward of Soetomo Hospital. Cases of AES with ages ranging from 1 month to 12 years were included. Cases that were categorized as simple and complex febrile seizures...

Review Article
Oncology
Prognostic factors and treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia
Jae Wook Lee, Bin Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(5):129-137.   Published online May 31, 2017

The event-free survival (EFS) for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has shown remarkable improvement in the past several decades. In Korea also, a recent study showed 10-year EFS of 78.5%. Much of the improved outcome for pediatric ALL stems from the accurate identification of prognostic factors, the designation of risk group based on these factors, and treatment of appropriate duration...

Case Report
Neurology
Concurrency of Guillain-Barre syndrome and acute transverse myelitis: a case report and review of literature
Orkun Tolunay, Tamer Çelik, Ümit Çelik, Mustafa Kömür, Zeynep Tanyeli, Abdurrahman Sönmezler
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S161-S164.   Published online November 30, 2016

Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis manifest as demyelinating diseases of the peripheral and central nervous system. Concurrency of these two disorders is rarely documented in literature. A 4-year-old girl presenting with cough, fever, and an impaired walking ability was admitted to hospital. She had no previous complaints in her medical history. A physical examination revealed lack of muscle strength...

Original Article
Hematology
Clinical course and prognostic factors of childhood immune thrombocytopenia: single center experience of 10 years
Jae Yeob Jung, A Rum O, Je Keong Kim, Meerim Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(8):335-340.   Published online August 24, 2016
Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical course of childhood immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and to assess the risk factors for developing chronic ITP.

Methods

The records of 64 children diagnosed with ITP from November 2005 and December 2014 at single center were retrospectively analyzed.

Results

The median age at diagnosis and the median platelet count were 1 year (range, 1 month to 15 years)...

Neurology
Clinical importance of F-waves as a prognostic factor in Guillain-Barré syndrome in children
Eung-Bin Lee, Yun Young Lee, Jae Min Lee, Su Min Son, Su-Kyeong Hwang, Soonhak Kwon, Sae Yoon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(6):271-275.   Published online June 30, 2016
Purpose

A limited number of studies have examined the link between F-wave abnormalities and clinical presentation in pediatric Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Therefore, this study examined the importance of F-wave abnormalities as a prognostic factor in pediatric GBS patients.

Methods

The records and electrodiagnostic studies (EDS) of 70 GBS patients were retrospectively evaluated, and divided into 2 groups according to the results of EDS....

Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Acute tubular necrosis as a part of vancomycin induced drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms syndrome with coincident postinfectious glomerulonephritis
Kyung Min Kim, Kyoung Sung, Hea Koung Yang, Seong Heon Kim, Hye Young Kim, Gil Ho Ban, Su Eun Park, Hyoung Doo Lee, Su Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(3):145-148.   Published online March 31, 2016

Drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and potentially fatal condition characterized by skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and multiorgan involvement. Various drugs may be associated with this syndrome including carbamazepine, allopurinol, and sulfasalazine. Renal involvement in DRESS syndrome most commonly presents as acute kidney injury due to interstitial nephritis. An 11-year-old boy was referred to...

Case Report
Urosepsis and postrenal acute renal failure in a neonate following circumcision with Plastibell device
Meena Kalyanaraman, Derrick McQueen, Joseph Sykes, Tej Phatak, Farhaan Malik, Preethi S. Raghava
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(4):154-157.   Published online April 22, 2015

Plastibell is one of the three most common devices used for neonatal circumcision in the United States, with a complication rate as low as 1.8%. The Plastibell circumcision device is commonly used under local anesthesia for religious circumcision in male neonates, because of cosmetic reasons and ease of use. Occasionally, instead of falling off, the device may get buried under...

Original Article
A comparison of the efficacy of amoxicillin and nasal irrigation in treatment of acute sinusitis in children
Abolfazl Khoshdel, Gholam Reza Panahande, Mohamad Kazem Noorbakhsh, Mohamad Reza Malek Ahmadi, Masoud Lotfizadeh, Neda Parvin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(11):479-483.   Published online November 30, 2014
Purpose

The efficacy of antibiotic therapy for acute sinusitis is controversial. This study aimed to compare the efficacies of amoxicillin with nasal irrigation and nasal irrigation alone for acute sinusitis in children.

Methods

This randomized, double-blind, controlled study included 80 children aged 4-15 years with a clinical presentation of acute sinusitis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either amoxicillin (80 mg/kg/day) in 3...

Clinical outcome of acute necrotizing encephalopathy in related to involving the brain stem of single institution in Korea
Cha Gon Lee, Ji Hye Kim, Munhyang Lee, Jeehun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(6):264-270.   Published online June 30, 2014
Purpose

Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a fulminant disease of the brain characterized by bilateral thalamic lesions, and is prevalent among children in East Asia. The prognosis of ANE is usually poor with a high mortality rate and neurological sequelae. This study aimed to delineate the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of ANE.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed clinical data of 399 pediatric patients...

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