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Original Article
Sex-based differences in factors associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness in adolescents with childhood asthma
Young Hwan Kim, Yoon Young Jang, Jieun Jeong, Hai Lee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):229-238.   Published online January 14, 2021
Question: What factors are associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in adolescents with childhood asthma?
Finding: Age, mold sensitization, and increased eosinophil count were associated with BHR in boys versus a reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio in girls. Early mold sensitization was a risk factor for persistent BHR in boys only.
Meaning: Sex-specific differences were observed in the factors associated with BHR in adolescents.
Case Report
Unusual malignant neoplasms of ovary in children: two cases report
Ali Ghribi, Aicha Bouden, Manef Gasmi, Mourad Hamzaoui
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(Suppl 1):S107-S111.   Published online November 30, 2016

Sex cord tumors with annular tubules are known to originate from the sex cord of embryonic gonads that synthesize Sertoli cells, Leydig cells, granulosa cells, and theca cells of the ovarian stroma, while ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcemic type is a type of neuroendocrine tumor. Both these tumors are uncommon, potentially malignant neoplasms in children. We report the...

Review Article
Effects of early menarche on physical and psychosocial health problems in adolescent girls and adult women
Jae-Ho Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2016;59(9):355-361.   Published online September 21, 2016

The menarcheal age of Korean women has been rapidly decreasing for the last 50 years, and the average menarcheal age of women born in the 1990s is approaching 12.6 years. In addition, interest in early puberty has been increasing recently owing to the rapid increase in precocious puberty. Generally, out of concern for short stature and early menarche, idiopathic central...

Original Article
Diagnosis and constitutional and laboratory features of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty
Doosoo Kim, Sung-Yoon Cho, Se-Hyun Maeng, Eun Sang Yi, Yu Jin Jung, Sung Won Park, Young Bae Sohn, Dong-Kyu Jin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(12):481-486.   Published online December 20, 2012

Precocious puberty is defined as breast development before the age of 8 years in girls. The present study aimed to reveal the diagnosis of Korean girls referred for precocious puberty and to compare the constitutional and endocrinological features among diagnosis groups.


The present study used a retrospective chart review of 988 Korean girls who had visited a pediatric endocrinology clinic from...

Review Article
Effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development
Shin Hye Kim, Mi Jung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2012;55(8):265-271.   Published online August 23, 2012

Phytoestrogen is an estrogenic compound that occurs naturally in plants. The most common sources of phytoestrogen are soybean products, which contain high levels of isoflavones. This compound, which has structural similarity with estrogen, can act as an estrogen receptor agonist or antagonist. Animal studies provide evidence of the significant effects of phytoestrogen on sexual development, including altered pubertal timing, impaired...

Case Report
A sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary with masculinization in a premenarchal girl
Soo Min Park, Young Nam Kim, Young Jong Woo, Ho Sun Choi, Ji Shin Lee, Suk Hee Heo, Chan Jong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2011;54(5):224-227.   Published online May 31, 2011

A sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary is an extremely rare benign tumor; it usually is found during the second and third decades of life. Patients present with pelvic pain or a palpable abdominal mass. Hormonal effects such as masculinization are uncommon. Here, an 11-year old premenarchal girl presented with deepening of the voice. In addition, clitoromegaly and hirsutism with...

Review Article
Child sexual abuse and pediatricians
Insil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2009;52(11):1200-1206.   Published online November 15, 2009
Child sexual abuse is not a rarely encountered problem. Child sexual abuse is a pediatric disease entity with lifelong impact. Child sexual abuse, different from sexual assault, is not always accompanied by violent force and usually repeated over a period of time. Child sexual abuse should be approached by multidisciplinary team experts. Every pediatrician should know the child protection network...
Original Article
Birth weight for gestational age patterns by sex, plurality, and parity in Korean population
Jung Ju Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(8):732-739.   Published online August 15, 2007
Purpose : A universal standard of the birth weight for gestational age cannot be made since birth weight distribution varies with races, nations and eras. This report aims to establish the birth weight for gestational age patterns by sex, plurality, and parity, specific for Korean live births. Methods : The national birth certificate data of all live births in Korea from...
Child sexual abuse
Hyun Joo Lee, Hye Jung Han, Ji Hee Kim, Hye Sun Lee, In Sil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2007;50(1):20-27.   Published online January 15, 2007
Purpose : Child sexual abuse is a significant and serious problem that affects public health and society. Pediatricians are responsible for preventing and detecting sexual abuse of children. The aim of this study was to examine clinical findings of child sexual abuse. Methods : The authors retrospectively studied 292 patients between the ages of 0 and 18 who were referred for...
Health and risk taking behaviors of freshmen in college
Hong Ki Ko, Jae Joon Han, Yoon Lee, Young Yoo, Kee Hyoung Lee, Ji Tae Choung, Sang Hee Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2006;49(10):1042-1049.   Published online October 15, 2006
Purpose : This study was conducted to survey the preliminary data on risk behaviors and to identify the factors that prevent risk-behaviors in late adolescence. Methods : Freshmen(n=1,297) beginning the first semester in Korea University, Seoul, Korea completed self-administered risk behavior questionnaires, comprising 5 domains : demographics, smoking, drinking, drug abuse and sexual behavior. Results : The rate of smoking experience was...
A Cytogenetic Study in Patients with Sex Chromosome Abnormalities
Hyun Ji Seo, Ji Hye Lee, Heung Kyo Lee, Seung Hee Jung, Kun Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(12):1317-1323.   Published online December 15, 2005
Purpose : This study was performed to evaluate the recent frequency of karyotypes in different sex chromosome abnormalities and to evaluate the age and clinical manifestations at diagnosis. Methods : Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained from subjects who were clinically suspected to have sex chromosome abnormalities and referred to the cytogenetic laboratory in the Department of Pediatrics, Kyungpook National University Hospital...
Recurrence and Follow-up after Urinary Tract Infection
Ji Hee Kim, Hye Kyung Shin, Kee Hwan Yoo, Young Sook Hong, Joo Won Lee, Soon Kyum Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(6):561-565.   Published online June 15, 2003
Purpose : Urinary tract infection(UTI) is the most common bacterial infectious disease that may induce severe renal injury unless early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are performed. If recurrent UTI is prevented, renal injury can be also reduced. Therefore, we studied the risk factors of recurrent UTI in children. Methods : We performed a retrospective study of 168 children(58 girls and 110...
Molecular Genetic Screening for the SRY(Sex Determining Region of the Y chromosme) Gene in Turner Syndrome Patients
Jung-Yeon Shim, Han-Wook Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1996;39(7):915-923.   Published online July 15, 1996
Purpose : Turner syndrome is among the most common cytogenetic abnormalities associated with X chromosome. In only 40-60% of Turner syndrome, 45,X monosomy is found and the high prenatal mortality of non-mosaic 45,X has led to the hypothesis that liveborn 45,X individuals may be cryptic mosaics. The presence of Y chromosome is significant because it predisposes affected individuals with Turner syndrome to gonadoblastoma formation....
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels in Children with Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus
Duk Hi Kim, Mi Jung Park, Ho Sung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1995;38(7):963-969.   Published online July 15, 1995
Purpose : Sex hormone binding globulin(SHBG) is produced in liver and binds to testostero-ne and estradiol. Plasma SHBG levels are increased by estrogen and thyrotoxicosis and decreased by testostrone, insulin, growth hormone, prolactin, obesity and noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus. SHBG levels in patients with NIDDM is known to be higher than normal, but SHBG levels in children with IDDM is controversial....
The Sexual Maturity Rating of Adolescent Boys and Girls in Korea
Chang-Ho Hong, Hae-Ok Rho, Sang-Hi Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(2):193-198.   Published online February 15, 1994
There are ethnic differences in the timing of sexual maturaion. However, averages of sexual maturity rating (SMR) for Korean adolescents were not available until recently. The purpose of this study was to determine averages for the SMR of adolescent girls and boys in Korea. The study population included 3,249 boys and 3,337 girls. The sample comprised 2,406 from the Seoul area,...
Physical Growth According to Sexual Maturation of Korean Adolescents
Hwan Gyu Park, Chang Ho Hong, Duk Hi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1994;37(9):1187-1195.   Published online September 15, 1991
Adolescence is the period in which physical, mental and social maturation occurs and it is an important transit stage, changing from childhood to adulthood. This is a period in which important changes occur physically such as rapid growth in height and weight gain but significant differences in growth may occur for the same age. Therfore, the degree of sexual maturation...
A Case of Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis.
Byung Ran Yun, Jae Il Sohn, Sei Won Yang, Hyung Ro Moon, Je Geun Chi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(12):1757-1762.   Published online December 31, 1989
Mixed gonadal dysenesis is a disorder of sexual differentiation which is characterized by streak gonad associated with contralateral tesis, persistent Mullerian duct structures and/or sex chromosomal mosaicism most commonly with 45, X/46, XY. The authors experienced a case of mixed gonadal dysgensis in a 6-year old child who was reared as female and admitted due to clitoral enlargement. The patient had asymmetrical gonads consisted with...
A Study on Blood Pressure Measurements in School Children in Seoul Area.
Young Choi, Chang Youn Lee, Chung Il Noh, Chang Yee Hong, Sang Il Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1989;32(8):1086-1092.   Published online August 31, 1989
Blood pressure measurements were done in 9,346 school children in Seoul area in May, June and September, 1987. Korin BP 103N (automated oscillometric method) was used for blood pressure measurements. The results were as follows. 1) Blood pressure increased according to both increasing age and height. 2) Mean systolic pressure (MSP) increased from 100 mmHg at 6 to 124 mmHg at 18 years of age in boys. On...
Sex and Age Differences of Etiologic Organisms in Urinary Tract Infection.
Sun Ho Lee, Seung Jae Yang, Jeh Hoon Shin, Woo Gill Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1987;30(10):1100-1106.   Published online October 31, 1987
There is suggestive evidence that natural history of urinary tract infection (UTI) in male children differs from that of the disease in female children. We have studied sex and age differences of etiologic organism in 257 patients with UTI who were admitted to the Department of Pediatrics Hanyang University Hospital from January 1978 toDecember 1985. All patient had the positive urine culture and a...
Case Report
A Case Report of McCune Albright Syndrome.
Kei Hag Son, Un Ki Yoon, Soon Ok Byun, Ji Sub Oh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(12):1366-1371.   Published online December 31, 1986
A case of McCune Albright syndrome in a 8 year old girl was presented. Examination revealed polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, cutaneous pigmentation, sexual precocity and hyperthyroidism. Recently, she has suffered from craniofacial deformity and thyroid gland enlargement. The diagnosis was confirmed by characteristic clinical feature, radiologic evidence,biochemical assay and radioisotopic assay. A review of the literature was made briefly.
Original Article
Clinical Studies on Sexual Precocity.
Ki Seok Ahn, Duk Hi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1986;29(3):255-264.   Published online March 31, 1986
The majority of cases of sexual precocity is idiopathic, but it can be caused by the intracranial lesions, gonadal or adrenal disorders. Clinical studies on the 33 cases of precocious puberty who visited the Dept, of Pediatrics of Yonsei Medical Center from Aug. 1978:to July 1984 were subjected in this study. The careful history taking, physical examination, radiologic and hormonal...
Case Report
A Study of Intersex.
Chul Young Lee, Duk Hi Kim, Moo Sang Lee, Seung Kang Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 1982;25(6):607-615.   Published online June 30, 1982
Intersex is the state of having ambiguous or inappropriate genitalia due to abnormalities of normal mechanisms for sexual development. Three broad subcategories of intersex have been defined according to the histology of the gonad: Female & male pseudohermaphroditism and true hermaphroditism. Twenty two cases of intersex are described. Among them, true hermaphroditism was 7 cas-es, female pseudohermaphroditism 10 cases and...
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