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"Most viewed" Articles are from the articles published in 2021 during the last six month.

Original Article
Infection
Viral load and rebound in children with coronavirus disease 2019 during the first outbreak in Daegu city   (867 times)
Mi Ae Chu, Yoon Young Jang, Dong Won Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Namhee Ryoo, Sunggyun Park, Jae Hee Lee, Hai Lee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):652-660.   Published online October 12, 2021
Question: What is the natural course of viral load in children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Finding: A significant number of patients still had a relatively high viral load once clinically asymptomatic. Nearly half of the patients experienced viral rebound, which contributed to prolonged viral detection in their respiratory specimens.
Meaning: Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of viral rebound in asymptomatic or mild pediatric cases of COVID-19.
Review Article
Genetics and Metabolism
Understanding the genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus using Bayesian statistics and gene network analysis   (861 times)
Seoung Wan Nam, Kwang Seob Lee, Jae Won Yang, Younhee Ko, Michael Eisenhut, Keum Hwa Lee, Jae Il Shin, Andreas Kronbichler
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):208-222.   Published online July 15, 2020
Bayesian false-discovery probability and false-positive report probability are the 2 major Bayesian methods used to evaluate noteworthiness of a genetic variant.
Application of stricter P value is needed to confirm statistical significance in meta-analyses.
Gene network analysis of noteworthy genetic variants shows a blueprint of the genetic background in complex diseases.
Original Article
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Is meconium exposure associated with autism spectrum disorders in children?   (860 times)
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Erfan Ayubi, Salman Khazaei, Saeid Bashirian, Mojtaba Khazaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):341-346.   Published online October 4, 2020
• Meconium exposure is weakly associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) development in children.
• More evidence based on large prospective cohort studies is required to conclude whether meconium exposure is associated with an increased risk of ASD.
Review Article
General Pediatrics
A new perspective on cholesterol in pediatric health: association of vitamin D metabolism, respiratory diseases, and mental health problems   (858 times)
Jeana Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):65-72.   Published online December 9, 2021
∙ Pediatric dyslipidemia is associated with several health problems besides cardiovascular diseases.
∙ There is a direct association between pediatric dyslipidemia and low serum vitamin D levels, asthma, and mental health problems regardless of body mass index.
∙ More large-scale nationally representative studies are needed to establish the appropriate cutoff points for the definition of dyslipidemia that is a prerequisite for further epidemiological studies in the Korean pediatric population.
Original Article
Neurobehavior
Is there an association between labor induction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among children?   (856 times)
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Mahdieh Seyedi, Saeid Bashirian, Bita Fereidooni
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):489-493.   Published online February 5, 2021
· This meta-analysis pooled all observational (case-control and cohort) studies to obtain the association between labor induction and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children.
· The findings showed that labor induction is not associated with increased risk of ADHD among children.
Clinical note
General Pediatrics
Diabetic ketoacidosis in children induced by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) diabetic ketoacidosis post-COVID-19 in children   (853 times)
Neha Thakur, Narendra Rai
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):209-210.   Published online November 30, 2021
Original Article
Allergy
Influence of age at complementary food introduction on the development of asthma and atopic dermatitis in Korean children aged 1–3 years   (852 times)
Jihyun Lee, Meeyong Shin, Bora Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):408-414.   Published online November 1, 2020
Question: Is age at the time of complementary food introduction associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) in early childhood?
Finding: We found no significant association between age at the time of complementary food introduction and the incidence of AD and asthma in Koreans aged 1–3 years.
Meaning: Our findings suggest that the influence of individual allergenic foods on the development of AD and asthma should be clarified.
Editorial
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Which factors predict outcomes of neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy following therapeutic hypothermia?   (851 times)
Gyu Hong Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):169-171.   Published online December 11, 2020
Determining the therapeutic hypothermia and predict long-term prognosis quickly and accurately in infants with moderate to severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy requires a thorough history taking, physical examination, amplitude-integrated electroencephalography, brain magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion-weighted imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heart evaluation (cardiac enzymes, electrocardiography, and echocardiography), and several other biomarkers.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Is fetal nuchal cord associated with autism spectrum disorder? A meta-analysis   (844 times)
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Maryam Ahmadi, Azam Maleki
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):131-135.   Published online September 24, 2021
Question: Is fetal nuchal cord a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
Finding: Five articles (1 cohort, 4 case-control; total 3,088 children) were included in the present meta-analysis. Fetal nuchal cord was not a risk factor for ASD (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.66–1.57). There was homogeneity among studies that reported a risk of ASD (I2=0.0).
Meaning: Fetal nuchal cord is not a risk factor for ASD.
Editorial
Genetics and Metabolism
Improving the lives of children with neurofibromatosis type 1   (843 times)
Yoo-Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):165-166.   Published online September 18, 2020
· The early diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) could be supported by molecular testing in sporadic NF1 patients and would benefit their health.
· The well-planned surveillance and introduction of newly developed drugs targeting molecular pathways could improve the lives of pediatric NF1 patients.
Letter to the Editor
Infection
Changes in epidemiology of parainfluenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus infection during coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Korea   (831 times)
Kyung-Ran Kim, Hwanhee Park, Doo Ri Kim, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):320-321.   Published online March 10, 2022
Question: How the epidemiology of other childhood respiratory viruses has changed during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Korea?
Finding: Parainfluenza virus (PIV) typically circulated in the spring, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemic started in autumn in Korea before COVID-19 pandemic. PIV and RSV seasons disappeared in 2020 and came back in 2021 with atypical seasonality. PIV season was changed from spring to autumn, and the beginning of RSV season was slightly delayed from autumn to early winter in 2021.
Meaning: Circulation of PIV and RSV was changed to unusual seasons and patterns during COVID-19 pandemic period.
Editorial
Allergy
Clinical considerations and practical issues of allergic diseases in COVID-19 era   (823 times)
Sungsu Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(12):587-588.   Published online November 29, 2022
The risk of sudden acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes is not elevated in patients with the type 2 phenotype and well-controlled asthma. Inhaled corticosteroids, intranasal corticosteroids, and topical steroids can be safely used in COVID-19 patients. Biologics can be safely used by patients with allergic diseases without concern about antibody responses.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Efficacy of probiotics for managing infantile colic due to their anti-inflammatory properties: a meta-analysis and systematic review   (818 times)
Reza Shirazinia, Ali Akbar Golabchifar, Mohammad Reza Fazeli
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):642-651.   Published online April 12, 2021
Question: Do probiotics reduce colic symptoms?
Finding: Probiotics reduced colic symptoms in colicky infants probably due to the anti-inflammatory properties.
Meaning: Probiotics may be an effective and less noxious way to manage infantile colic.
Emergency Medicine
Nonfatal injuries in Korean children and adolescents, 2007–2018   (817 times)
Gyu Min Yeon, Yoo Rha Hong, Seom Gim Kong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):194-200.   Published online September 9, 2021
Question: How many children and adolescents have experienced nonfatal injuries in the previous year?
Finding: Among Korean children and adolescents, 8.1% experienced at least one injury per year. We found no significant change in the incidence of injuries over the previous 12 years.
Meaning: The incidence of injuries is higher than this estimation; therefore, more attention and effort are needed to prevent injuries among children and adolescents.
Editorial
Infection
Importance of maintaining a high childhood vaccination rate and surveillance program against Japanese encephalitis in Korea   (812 times)
Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):127-128.   Published online February 16, 2022
∙ Recent epidemiologic changes of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Korea are area (rural to urban or suburban) and age shift (children to adult).
∙ Although the main factors contributing to recent epidemiologic changes of JE are not well identified, maintaining high vaccination rates of JE appear to be important in preventing of JE in all age groups.
∙ Continuous surveillance for epidemiology and seroprevalence should be carried out.
Original Article
Neurobehavior
Association between small for gestational age and risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis   (809 times)
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Zahra Asali, Mahdieh Seyedi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):538-542.   Published online January 28, 2021
• The relationship between small for gestational age (SGA) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and remains conflicting.
• We showed based on odds ratio reports in epidemiological studies that SGA can increase the risk of ASD and SGA is a risk factor for ASD.
• The association between SGA and the risk of ASD has further momentum to the current public health emphasis on appropriate prepregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy
Editorial
Endocrinology
Clinical and diagnostic importance of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic   (802 times)
Eun Young Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):129-130.   Published online January 14, 2022
∙ Because childhood lipid concentrations continue into adulthood, early evaluation and treatment are needed, but dyslipidemia awareness is low.
∙ For the prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia in childhood and adolescence, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adulthood, lifestyle modifications, appropriate exercise, and drug treatment are required.
∙ A large-scale study of the prevalence and therapeutic effects of dyslipidemia in children and adolescents in Korea is needed.
Clinical Note
Infection
A neonate infected with coronavirus disease 2019 with severe symptoms suggestive of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in childhood   (794 times)
Fatemeh Eghbalian, Ghazal Sami, Saeid Bashirian, Ensiyeh Jenabi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):596-598.   Published online September 10, 2021
Question: Can multisystem inflammatory syndrome in childhood (MIS-C) occur in the neonate associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?
Finding: A 9-day-old neonate infected with COVID-19 had fever, respiratory distress, and gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of MIS-C. This neonate recovered after treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG).
Meaning: IVIG successfully treated a rare case of a 9-day-old neonate with COVID-19 and severe symptoms suggestive of MIS-C.
Editorial
Infection
Catheter care bundle and feedback to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric patients   (784 times)
Hye-Kyung Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):119-120.   Published online December 8, 2020
• Intravascular catheter-related infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children, and care bundles are effective and cost-saving in pediatric and neonatal patients.
• Providing regular feedbacks to critical care practitioners is helpful to maintain compliance to care bundle.
• Establishing a bundle policy (insertion and maintenance), monitoring compliance, and providing regular feedbacks are necessary for prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections in pediatric patients.
Neurology
Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures; beyond differentiating from epileptic seizures   (781 times)
Sang Ook Nam
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):282-283.   Published online November 12, 2020
Review Article
Allergy
Eosinophils and childhood asthma   (765 times)
Bong Seok Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):60-67.   Published online January 6, 2021
•In allergic eosinophilic asthma, eosinophils act as important effector cells and antigen-presenting cells, while in nonallergic eosinophilic asthma, type 2 innate lymphoid cells play an important role in eosinophil activation.
•Sputum eosinophil counts can be helpful for evaluating allergic airway inflammation in asthma.
• Anti-interleukin-5 has broadened the scope of asthma treatment.
Editorial
Infection
Effects of nonpharmaceutical interventions for coronavirus disease 2019   (757 times)
Jae Hong Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):250-251.   Published online March 22, 2022
∙ Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have decreased the incidence of various infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
∙ During the 2-year COVID-19 pandemic, NPIs changed patients’ daily lives, and the impact on mental health was notable.
∙ The effects of NPIs were evaluated in detail, considering both infections and mental health.
Original Article
Other
Spatial modeling of mortality from acute lower respiratory infections in children under 5 years of age in 2000–2017: a global study   (754 times)
Ali Almasi, Sohyla Reshadat, Alireza Zangeneh, Mehdi Khezeli, Raziyeh Teimouri, Samira Rahimi Naderi, Shahram Saeidi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):632-641.   Published online March 19, 2021
Question: We assessed the spatial modeling of mortality from acute lower respiratory infections in children under 5 years old during 2000–2017 using a global data.
Finding: The total number of child deaths during the study period decreased, while the number of hot spots increased among countries.
Meaning: Hot spots were concentrated in Asia in 2000 but shifted toward African countries by 2017. A cold spot formed in Europe over the study period.
Letter to the Editor
Other
Changes in air pollution and childhood respiratory viral infections in Korea post-COVID-19 outbreak   (750 times)
Hyung Kyu Park, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):211-213.   Published online February 17, 2022
Editorial
Oncology
Infantile hemangioma: timely diagnosis and treatment   (749 times)
Meerim Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):573-574.   Published online July 22, 2021
While the majority of infantile hemangiomas (IHs) do not require therapy and regress spontaneously, about 10%–15% develop complications such as ulceration, obstruction, or disfigurement. Early intervention is recommended for infants with potentially problematic IHs. Oral propranolol 2–3 mg/kg/day is currently the treatment of choice.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Does cord blood cortisol have a mediating effect on maternal prepregnancy body mass index and birth weight?   (733 times)
Gyu Hong Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):24-25.   Published online November 30, 2022
· A high prepregnancy body mass index (pre-BMI) is associated with large for gestational age (LGA) and macrosomia, whereas a low pre-BMI is associated with small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight (LBW).
· The identification of the role of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in the effect of pre-BMI and maternal gestational weight gain on birth weight could reduce the frequency of LGA, macrosomia, SGA, or LBW through maternal diet optimization.
Endocrinology
Is type 1 diabetes related to coronavirus disease 2019 in children?   (729 times)
Minsun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):252-253.   Published online March 29, 2022
· Evidence shows that patients with type 1 diabetes have been severely affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in various ways.
· Although there is no reliable evidence that COVID-19 worsens or induces diabetes, it can impair β-cell insulin secretion and glucose control by inducing inflammation and cytokine production.
· A study is needed of the short- and long-term relationship between diabetes and COVID-19 in the Korean pediatric population.
Review Article
Nutrition
Total energy expenditure measured by doubly labeled water method in children and adolescents: a systematic review   (722 times)
Nahyun Kim, Jonghoon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(2):54-65.   Published online October 17, 2022
This systematic review summarizes convincing evidence that total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using the doubly labeled water technique increased with age from 1 to 18 years, while fat-free mass (FFM) increased with growth. TEE and in normal-weight participants, while physical activity level did not differ from that of normal-weight participants.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Clinical implications of coronavirus disease 2019 in neonates   (714 times)
Do-Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):157-164.   Published online February 4, 2021
• Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) was detected in approximately 3% of neonates of mothers with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
• Neonatal COVID-19 is relatively benign with 16%–22.4% cases asymptomatic.
• Neonates with pre-existing medical conditions and preterm infants are at a higher risk of severe COVID-19.
• Requirement for neonatal mechanical ventilation is 20%–22.4% (vs. 4% in children)
• Low birth weight (13.9%) and premature birth (22.2%) affect neonates of mothers with COVID-19.
Editorial
Other
Is multisystem inflammatory syndrome related with coronavirus disease 2019, Kawasaki disease, and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in children?   (713 times)
Lucy Youngmin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):225-226.   Published online March 5, 2021
With the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, it is important to consider why Kawasaki disease (KD) is prevalent in young children and its symptoms are similar to multisystem inflammatory syndrome in older children. We hypothesized that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression may be related. In fact, this may be an answer why COVID-19 occurs less frequently in children with lower ACE2 expression.
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