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"Most viewed" Articles are from the articles published in 2021 during the last six month.

Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Perinatal outcome and possible vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019: experience from North India   (1,988 times)
Ritu Sharma, Shikha Seth, Rakhee Sharma, Sanju Yadav, Pinky Mishra, Sujaya Mukhopadhyay
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):239-246.   Published online February 16, 2021
Question: Is there any risk of vertical transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and what is its neonatal profile?
Finding: Biological samples for vertical transmission were negative in all deliveries; however, 2 neonates tested positive for nasopharyngeal COVID-19 reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. No significant neonatal morbidity was observed.
Meaning: COVID-19 does not increase adverse neonatal outcomes and shows a negligible risk of vertical transmission; however, horizontal transmission cannot be underestimated.
Allergy
Cohort profile: National Investigation of Birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 (NICKs-2008)   (1,987 times)
Ju Hee Kim, Jung Eun Lee, So Min Shim, Eun Kyo Ha, Dong Keon Yon, Ok Hyang Kim, Ji Hyeon Baek, Hyun Yong Koh, Kyu Young Chae, Seung Won Lee, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):480-488.   Published online January 5, 2021
This national cohort study included all Korean children born in 2008 and 2009 observed over a period of more than 10 years. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to analyze disease onset prior to hospitalization based on information such as lifestyle, eating habits, and risk factors by integrating National Health Insurance System data with national health screening data.
Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Neonatal hypertension: concerns within and beyond the neonatal intensive care unit   (1,977 times)
Kathleen Altemose, Janis M. Dionne
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):367-376.   Published online May 30, 2022
Some neonates, especially those who are premature, may experience hypertension while in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The most common causes are prematurity-related and the hypertension usually resolves over the first 1–2 years of life. Unfortunately, the increasing population of NICU graduates is at risk for later cardiovascular and kidney disease in childhood and adulthood. This population requires careful attention to blood pressure and weight throughout their life course.
Neurology
Is it really a seizure? The challenge of paroxysmal nonepileptic events in young infants   (1,965 times)
Seung Yeon Jung, Joon Won Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):384-392.   Published online September 18, 2020
Paroxysmal nonepileptic events (PNE) comprise of a variety of nonepileptic behaviors and are divided into various types. A more accurate diagnosis is possible by examining the video clip provided by the caregiver. In infants, physiologic PNE accounts for the majority of the PNE. It is important to exclude epilepsy, for which blood tests, electroencephalography, and imaging tests can facilitate differential...
Other
Review of epidemiological studies on air pollution and health effects in children   (1,960 times)
Jong-Tae Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):3-11.   Published online June 10, 2020
This review summarized the accumulated epidemiologic evidence with emphasis on studies conducted in Korea and heterogeneity in the literature. Based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there is consistent evidence on the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and children’s health, especially respiratory health and adverse birth outcomes, and growing evidence on neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Nutrition
Dietary intake and nutritional status of Korean children and adolescents: a review of national survey data   (1,959 times)
Minji Kang, So Yoon Choi, Minyoung Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):443-458.   Published online December 28, 2020
In Korea, several national cross-sectional surveys monitor the diet, nutritional status, and health status of children. This continual dedicated national surveillance system contributes to the identification of nutritional and health issues, establishment of public health policies, and development of nutrition recommendations. This paper provides recent information about the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Korean Youth Risk...
Original Article
Neurology
Neurodevelopmental outcomes and comorbidities of children with congenital muscular torticollis: evaluation using the National Health Screening Program for Infants and Children database   (1,895 times)
Og Hyang Kim, Seung Won Lee, Eun Kyo Ha, Ju Hee Kim, Yun Hye Jo, Seongyeong Rhie, Man Yong Han, Kyu Young Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):312-319.   Published online December 9, 2021
Question: What comorbidities are increased in children with congenital muscular torticollis (CMT)? Are there differences in the neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with CMT who received physical therapy versus those who did not?
Finding: The risk of congenital musculoskeletal deformities is increased in CMT. Children who did not receive physical therapy were at greater risk of neurodevelopmental delay.
Meaning: In CMT, musculoskeletal comorbidities should be identified and active early treatment provided.
Review Article
Neurology
Myths and truths about pediatric psychogenic nonepileptic seizures   (1,886 times)
Jung Sook Yeom, Heather Bernard, Sookyong Koh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):251-259.   Published online October 17, 2020
• Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are events that look like epileptic seizures but are not caused by abnormal electrical discharges.
• PNES are a manifestation of psychological and emotional distress.
• Treatment for PNES does not begin with the psychological intervention but starts with the diagnosis and how the diagnosis is delivered.
• A multifactorial biopsychosocial process and a neurobiological review are both essential components when treating PNES
Gastroenterology
Upper gastrointestinal tract involvement of Crohn disease: clinical implications in children and adolescents   (1,864 times)
Eun Sil Kim, Mi Jin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):21-28.   Published online September 10, 2021
· Clinical manifestations of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract involvement in Crohn's disease (CD) are common but often clinically underestimated.
· Diagnosing CD by confirming inflammation of the UGI tract histologically is challenging because macroscopic and microscopic findings overlap with those of other diseases.
· Ongoing efforts are needed to enable a standardized assessment of UGI CD in the future.
General Pediatrics
Motor performance of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: focus on the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency   (1,809 times)
Khushboo Prashant Adhvaryu, Suruliraj Karthikbabu, Pratiksha Tilak Rao
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(11):512-520.   Published online February 17, 2022
· Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) tend to have impaired motor performance that may affect their growth and development.
· Although widely used among children with developmental disorders, the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOTMP) is used sparsely among children with ADHD.
· Assessment by the BOTMP increases our understanding of the motor repertoire of children with ADHD.
· Wider usage of the BOTMP will enable more comprehensive planning of rehabilitation goals to enhance the motor abilities of children with ADHD.
Original Article
Other
Risk factors and screening timing for developmental dysplasia of the hip in preterm infants   (1,766 times)
Ga Won Jeon, Hye Jung Choo, Yong Uk Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(5):262-268.   Published online November 5, 2021
Question: When is the best screening timing and what is the risk factor for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) in preterm infants?
Finding: Ultrasonography performed earlier than 38 weeks of postmenstrual age caused unnecessary subsequent ultrasonography. DDH did not occur predominantly on the left side or in breech infants.
Meaning: The screening timing, etiology, and risk factors for DDH in preterm infants are somewhat different from those in term infants.
Review Article
Allergy
Management of patients with allergic diseases in the era of COVID-19   (1,766 times)
Eun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(11):529-535.   Published online September 23, 2022
In the early days of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, allergic diseases, especially asthma, were considered to be risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. These concerns stemmed from the idea that individuals with allergic diseases are generally more susceptible to respiratory virus infections, which are major causes of exacerbation of allergic diseases. However, epidemiologic data with...
Editorial
Pulmonology
Community-acquired pneumonia in Korean children: time to read between the lines   (1,765 times)
Dong In Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(1):22-23.   Published online November 10, 2022
· Various studies have reported the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Korean children
· Factors other than etiology are equally important to a compre hensive understanding of CAP
· Knowledge from archived reports is no longer directly applicable to the current CAP and requires careful modification
Original Article
Gastroenterology
Value of the International Classification of Diseases code for identifying children with biliary atresia   (1,762 times)
Pornthep Tanpowpong, Chatmanee Lertudomphonwanit, Pornpimon Phuapradit, Suporn Treepongkaruna
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):80-85.   Published online August 24, 2020
Question: What is the value of the diagnostic code in identifying cases of biliary atresia in a large administrative database?
Finding: The diagnostic code’s accuracy and sensitivity are acceptable for identifying algorithm-defined cases. A history of pale stool and a presumed diagnosis of biliary atresia prior to referral added value.
Meaning: The addition of clinical data to the diagnostic code significantly increased the diagnostic yield.
Editorial
Other
Three-dimensional printing technolgy in orthopedic oncology   (1,757 times)
Yongsung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):496-497.   Published online May 11, 2022
Orthopedic oncology is one of the most active fields in applying 3-dimensional printing technology from preoperative planning to intraoperative procedures such as accurate resection of tumors and reconstruction of huge bone defects.
Original Article
Nutrition
Survey of Korean pediatrician’s perceptions of barriers to and improvements in breastfeeding   (1,749 times)
Seong Phil Bae, Woo Ryoung Lee, Won-Ho Hahn, Hye-Jung Shin, Young Min Ahn, Son Moon Shin, Yong Joo Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan Kim, Youn Jeong Shin, Dae Yong Yi, Soon Min Lee, Juyoung Lee, Jin A Lee, Sung-Hoon Chung, Euiseok Jung, Eui Kyung Choi, Ju Sun Heo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(11):540-546.   Published online July 29, 2022
Question: What barriers to breastfeeding do Korean pediatricians perceive?
Finding: Regardless of medical institution, breastfeeding counseling for parents is currently limited, and breastfeeding is commonly discontinued due to various maternal and neonatal factors.
Meaning: To promote breastfeeding, increasing pediatrician participation in breastfeeding counseling with the establishment of appropriate breastfeeding counseling fees and the expansion of practical and high-quality breastfeeding education for medical staff should be considered.
Review Article
Infection
Therapeutics for the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 in children and adolescents   (1,743 times)
Soo-Han Choi, Jae Hong Choi, Ki Wook Yun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):377-386.   Published online June 27, 2022
· Children and adolescents with high risks for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) should be identified and proper treatment should be provided promptly according to the patient’s condition.
· Remdesivir can be considered for pediatric patients of all ages with COVID-19 who have an emergent or increase in supplemental oxygen.
· The use of corticosteroids is not recommended for patients with nonsevere COVID-19. Corticosteroids are recommended in children and adolescents with severe and critical COVID-19.
Oncology
Application of 3-dimensional printing implants for bone tumors   (1,696 times)
Jong Woong Park, Hyun Guy Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):476-482.   Published online December 23, 2021
∙ The application of 3-dimensional (3D) printing in orthopedic oncology is summarized into bone and tumor modeling, patient-specific instruments (PSIs), custom-made implants, and tissue engineering.
∙ The 3D-printed customized implant is the most central application, while modeling and PSI often play adjunct roles.
∙ Short-term surgical outcomes of custom-made 3D-printed implants are promising.
Editorial
General Pediatrics
Why should we be concerned about early menarche?   (1,695 times)
Hae Sang Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):26-27.   Published online July 13, 2020
· Early menarche is associated with several health problems in later life.
· Early menarche can be caused by environmental factors such as increased subcutaneous fat, a high body mass index, and sugar-sweetened beverages as well as genetic factors.
· Health education can prevent early menarche by aiming to reduce the consumption of fructose, high concentrations of which are present in sugar-sweetened beverages.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Global relationship between parent and child obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis   (1,693 times)
Ju Suk Lee, Mi Hyeon Jin, Hae Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(1):35-46.   Published online March 29, 2021
Question: Are parent and child obesity correlated worldwide?
Finding: Overweight and obese status of parents and children were significantly associated worldwide. The association between parent and child obesity was stronger in Asia than in Europe and the Middle East, and in high-income than in middle- and low-income countries.
Meaning: Childhood obesity is highly influenced by parental weight status, indicating that parents could play an important role in its prevention.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Retinopathy of prematurity: a review of epidemiology and current treatment strategies   (1,670 times)
Eun Hee Hong, Yong Un Shin, Heeyoon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):115-126.   Published online October 12, 2021
There have been global tri-phasic epidemic periods of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). In recent years, its incidence has reportedly been 10%–40% depending on country and study population. Current treatment strategies for ROP include laser photocoagulation, surgical treatment, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment, the role of which has drawn attention in recent years.
Original Article
Endocrinology
Effects of probiotics combined with dietary and lifestyle modification on clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a randomized clinical trial   (1,657 times)
Thushara Rodrigo, Samaranayake Dulani, Sumudu Nimali Seneviratne, Arjuna P. De Silva, Jerad Fernando, H. Janaka De Silva, Jayasekera , V. Pujitha Wickramasinghe
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):304-311.   Published online November 11, 2021
Question: Could probiotics be used as a therapeutic modality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis?
Finding: There seem no added advantages over lifestyle modifications compared to Probiotics.
Meaning: There does not seem to be an advantage of probiotics over lifestyle modifications in improving obesity-associated metabolic derangement in children.
Review Article
Cardiology
Application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing for congenital heart disease   (1,638 times)
Heeyoung Seok, Rui Deng, Douglas B. Cowan, Da-Zhi Wang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):269-279.   Published online March 2, 2021
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system has made a big step in the genome editing which still requires technical developments for the efficient applications in the many fields including congenital heart diseases (CHDs), closely related to the genomic abnormality. In this review, we tried to cover the most updated researches of CRISPR-Cas9 in the CHDs to understand the current technologies, eventually becoming therapeutic bases for the CHD patients.
Infection
Changes in age-specific seroprevalence of Japanese encephalitis virus and impact of Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Korea   (1,635 times)
Byung Ok Kwak, Young Jin Hong, Dong Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):108-114.   Published online September 24, 2021
Since the introduction of a universal Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccination program and urbanization, the incidence of JE has dramatically decreased in Korea. However, recent JE cases have occurred, predominantly among unvaccinated adults and with a shift in age distribution. Continuous surveillance of the seroprevalence of JE is required to establish a proper immunization policy in Korea.
Letter to the Editor
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
The influence of parental eating behaviors, child-feeding practices, and infants’ temperaments upon infants’ eating behaviors   (1,624 times)
Goh Woon Lim, Kyoung Min Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):466-468.   Published online June 27, 2022
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Comparison of minimally invasive surfactant therapy with intubation surfactant administration and extubation for treating preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: a randomized clinical trial   (1,615 times)
Mohammad Kazem Sabzehei, Behnaz Basiri, Maryam Shokouhi, Sajad Ghahremani, Ali Moradi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):188-193.   Published online July 28, 2021
Question: Are the short-term outcomes of minimally invasive surfactant therapy (MIST) relatively superior to those of INtubation, SURfactant administration, and Extubation (INSURE) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)?
Finding: MIST could be an appropriate substitution for INSURE in preterm infants with RDS since it reduced hospitalization time and number of side effects.
Meaning: MIST is recommended for surfactant administration for its proven advantages over the INSURE technique.
Review Article
Neurology
Promising candidate cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of seizure disorder, infection, inflammation, tumor, and traumatic brain injury in pediatric patients   (1,609 times)
Seh Hyun Kim, Soo Ahn Chae
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):56-64.   Published online August 23, 2021
· Pediatric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) components have been extensively evaluated as biomarkers of various neurologic diseases.
· Several promising candidate CSF biomarkers, including Tau, glial fibrillary acidic protein, neuron-specific enolase, S100β, and interleukins, have been studied in pediatric patients with seizure disorders, central nervous system infections, inflammation, tumors, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, traumatic brain injuries, intraventricular hemorrhage, and congenital hydrocephalus.
· Circulating microRNAs in the CSF are a promising class of biomarkers for various neurological diseases.
General Pediatrics
Association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of bone fractures in offspring: a systematic review and meta-analysis   (1,604 times)
Erfan Ayubi, Saeid Safiri, Kamyar Mansori
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):96-102.   Published online February 5, 2020
Question: What is the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) on the risk of bone fractures in the offspring?
Finding: After the adjustment for misclassification, MSDP may be associated with a 27% increased risk of bone fracture in the offspring (pooled odds ratio, 1.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.62; I2=0%; P=0.537)
Meaning: Preventive measures and health education programs should be designed and implemented to encourage women to stop smoking, especially during.
Original Article
Cardiology
Early myocardial functional abnormalities in primary dyslipidemia: clinical and echocardiographic observations in young children from a highly consanguineous population   (1,581 times)
Nehal M. El-koofy, Aya M. Fattouh, Areef Ramadan, Mohamed A. Elmonem, Dina H. Hamed
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):410-416.   Published online December 8, 2021
In children with primary dyslipidemia, functional myocardial abnormalities can occur at young age, including diastolic functional impairment of both ventricles and narrowing of the aortic valve and the sinus of Valsalva. Echocardiographic evaluations of high-risk children may be as important as biochemical evaluations.
Review Article
Gastroenterology
Clinical importance of immunonutrition in infants: a review of the recent literature   (1,555 times)
Ji Sook Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):337-343.   Published online February 17, 2022
Nutrients are important in the developing immune system. Human milk supplies diverse bioactives to prevent acute infection or chronic inflammation. Immunoglobulins, lactoferrin, and glutamine in human milk decrease gastrointestinal and respiratory infection. Human milk oligosaccharides promote the growth of intestinal microbiota, the gut barrier, and antimicrobial or antiviral activity. Micronutrients act as anti-inflammatory immunonutrients, too. However, the toxicity of some nutrients from an overdose should be considered.
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