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"Most viewed" Articles are from the articles published in 2021 during the last six month.

Editorial
Neurobehavior
Impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on children’s health   (32,178 times)
Joon Won Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):498-499.   Published online September 16, 2022
· Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has had an enormous impact on mental health and other aspects of children’s health.
· The prevalence of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents have increased in the COVID-19 era.
· Cooperation among parents, guardians, academic societies, and the government is needed to maintain the mental health of children and adolescents.
Review Article
Infection
Pathogenetic and etiologic considerations of febrile seizures   (27,133 times)
Ji Yoon Han, Seung Beom Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2023;66(2):46-53.   Published online January 13, 2023
· Inflammatory responses accompanying fever increase neuronal excitability in the central nervous system, which in turn provokes seizures.
· Fever in children with febrile seizures is usually caused by common respiratory viruses, the distributions of which match those of seasonal community-acquired respiratory tract infections.
· Several genetic variations in ion channels seem associated with neuronal hyperexcitability in children with febrile seizures.
Oncology
Update on infantile hemangioma   (7,855 times)
Hye Lim Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):559-572.   Published online May 26, 2021
· Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common benign vascular tumors, occurring in 5%–10% of infants.
· IHs are characteristically not present at birth but are usually diagnosed at 1–4 weeks of age, rapidly proliferate until 5 months of age, and then spontaneously involute.
· High-risk IHs (10%) require early treatment from 1 month of age.
· Oral propranolol, a nonselective beta-blocker, is the first-line treatment for IHs.
Editorial
Endocrinology
Bisphenol A leaching from polycarbonate baby bottles into baby food causes potential health issues   (3,026 times)
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):450-452.   Published online July 25, 2022
Can bisphenol A (BPA) leach out from polycarbonate baby bottles into baby food? BPA and other toxic materials can leach out from baby bottles and increase the risk of various health problems, including endocrine disturbances. Although the use of BPA in baby bottles has been banned, many developing countries still use it, which can cause health issues. Thus, public awareness of this issue is required.
Review Article
Gastroenterology
Changing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents   (2,900 times)
Ji Sook Park, Jin Su Jun, Ji-Hyun Seo, Hee-Shang Youn, Kwang-Ho Rhee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):21-25.   Published online July 15, 2020
Although Helicobacter pylori infection rate in children is unclear due to diversity and limitation of diagnostic tests unlike in adults, investigation the childhood prevalence is important for predicting H. pylori-related diseases in the future.
H. pylori infection occurred in early childhood, and declined during 30 years in our study.
Change in risk factors of H. pylori transmission and consensus for eradication therapy in children might further reduce the infection rate.
General Pediatrics
Clinical features, diagnosis, and outcomes of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with coronavirus disease 2019   (2,786 times)
Ji Hee Kwak, Soo-Young Lee, Jong-Woon Choi; the Korean Society of Kawasaki Disease
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):68-75.   Published online December 30, 2020
Hundreds of cases of children and adolescents with hyperinflammatory responses such as Kawasaki disease have been reported amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, leading to coining of the new term COVID-19–associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. In this review article, we introduce the illness and describe its case definitions, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, treatments, and outcomes.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Pathophysiology, classification, and complications of common asymptomatic thrombocytosis in newborn infants   (2,773 times)
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):182-187.   Published online October 18, 2021
· Thrombocytosis, common in newborns and infants (<2 years) (3%–13%), is caused by elevated thrombopoietin (TPO) concentrations.
· Serum TPO levels are significantly higher immediately to 1 month postnatal and decrease with age.
· Platelet counts are positively correlated with gestational age at birth and postnatal age.
· Thrombocytosis is more common in preterm than in term infants.
· Thrombocytosis in newborns is reactive and resolves spontaneously without complications.
Adolescence Medicine
The impacts of exercise on pediatric obesity   (2,730 times)
Ronald J. Headid III, Song-Young Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):196-207.   Published online August 4, 2020
Pediatric obesity contributes to the development of vascular dysfunction and metabolic and cardiovascular diseases which have all been shown to track into adulthood, increasing the risk of early mortality. Early exercise intervention is critical for combating obesity-related comorbidities and the optimal exercise prescription has yet to be well documented. Exercise prescriptions to combat pediatric obesity should incorporate both aerobic and muscle-strengthening exercises with an emphasis on long-term adherence.
Allergy
Food allergies and food-induced anaphylaxis: role of cofactors   (2,705 times)
Meeyong shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):393-399.   Published online November 12, 2020
Question: What are the roles of cofactors in food allergies and food-induced anaphylaxis?
Finding: Cofactors reportedly play a role in approximately 14%–30% of anaphylactic reactions. Cofactors such as exercise, infection, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, dehydration, and alcohol can increase intestinal permeability and antigen uptake, thereby causing allergic symptoms.
Meaning: Routine assessment of the possible involvement of cofactors is essential for the management of patients with food-induced anaphylaxis.
Infection
Updates on the coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine and consideration in children   (2,555 times)
Hyun Mi Kang, Eun Hwa Choi, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):328-338.   Published online June 21, 2021
· The number of coronavirus disease 2019 cases has exponentially increased worldwide, and children ≤19 years old account for 11.0% of all confirmed cases.
· mRNA vaccines, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273, and adenoviral vector vaccines, AZD1222 and Ad26.COV2.S, authorized for emergency use in the Emergency Use Listing of the World Health Organization are reviewed.
· Clinical trials of these vaccines have shown that they are safe and serious adverse reactions are rarely observed.
Cardiology
Diagnosis of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease: recent guidelines and z score systems   (2,537 times)
Sung Hye Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):430-438.   Published online December 17, 2021
∙ Kawasaki disease is the leading cause of acquired heart disease among children in the developed countries, and Korea has the second-highest incidence in the world.
∙ Early diagnosis and proper treatment are imperative to prevent coronary complication, and evaluation of coronary artery abnormalities is fundamental.
∙ Recent guidelines have adapted z score system for the diagnosis of coronary artery abnormalities in Kawasaki disease.
∙ Applying z score in diagnosis of coronary abnormalities has better correlation with clinical outcomes than absolute cutoff values.
∙ Calculated z scores could be different according to the z score formula, which might influence the treatment plan.
Original Article
Infection
Role of lung ultrasound patterns in monitoring coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome in children   (2,526 times)
Satyabrata Roychowdhoury, Subhajit Bhakta, Manas Kumar Mahapatra, Saptarshi Ghosh, Sayantika Saha, Mithun Chandra Konar, Mihir Sarkar, Mousumi Nandi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):358-366.   Published online May 13, 2022
Question: Potential role of patterns of lung ultrasonography (US) in monitoring changes in mechanically ventilated patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia.
Finding: Interstitial syndrome, an irregular pleural line, and peripheral microconsolidation were the most prevalent findings. Changes in lung aeration after mechanical ventilation corelated with improved oxygenation. A fall in lung ultrasound reaeration score ≤ 5 may predict successful weaning.
Meaning: Lung US is gaining wider utility for monitoring COVID-19 pneumonia.
Review Article
Neurology
Cognitive outcomes in late childhood and adolescence of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy   (2,516 times)
Bo Lyun Lee, Hannah C. Glass
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):608-618.   Published online May 24, 2021
∙ Cognitive impairments occur in children with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) even without neuromotor deficits.
∙ Therapeutic hypothermia has improved neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with HIE; however, 40% of children remain at risk of death/disability or cognitive impairments necessitating the development of adjunctive neuroprotective therapies.
∙ Long-term follow-up until adolescence is required to identify cognitive dysfunction.
∙ A pattern of watershed injury on brain imaging is associated with poor cognitive outcomes.
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Mediation effect of cord blood cortisol levels between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and birth weight: a hospital-based cross-sectional study   (2,500 times)
Nisanth Selvam, Jayashree K, Prasanna Mithra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):500-506.   Published online July 29, 2022
Question: What is the association between cord blood cortisol and maternal weight, birth weight, and cord blood lipid profile?
Finding: Cord blood cortisol levels did not influence the relationship between maternal weight changes or birth weight. Maternal weight changes, birth weight, and cortisol levels altered the cord blood lipid profile.
Meaning: Our findings may aid United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3 (Good Health and Well-Being) achievement by 2030.
Review Article
Gastroenterology
Factors influencing development of the infant microbiota: from prenatal period to early infancy   (2,469 times)
Sujin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):439-447.   Published online December 23, 2021
∙ Microbial colonization primarily occurs after birth but there may be some colonization in utero, although this remains highly controversial.
∙ Maternal factors during pregnancy affect the infant microbiota: diet, weight, gestational weight gain, and antibiotic usage.
∙ Microbes are passed from mother-to-infant during and after birth. Delivery mode, breastfeeding, early life antibiotic, and proton pump inhibitor treatment have the largest effects on microbial composition in early life.
∙ The early life gut microbiome plays an important role in the development of the immune system and metabolism.
Original Article
Gastroenterology
Probiotics added to maternal nutrition affect ınfantile colic symptoms and fecal microbiota profile: a single-blind randomized controlled study   (2,420 times)
Aysu Yıldız Karaahmet, Gülümser Dolgun, Metehan Özen
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(11):547-554.   Published online September 23, 2022
Question: Do probiotics added to maternal nutrition affect infantile colic symptoms and intestinal microbiota?
Finding: Infants whose mothers ingested probiotics demonstrated decreased crying frequency and intensity and significantly increased bacterial diversity in the stools. The bacterial variety was substantially affected by the added probiotic product.
Meaning: The addition of probiotics to maternal nutrition in early infancy could play an important role in preventing infantile colic.
Perspective
Infection
Statement on healthcare system preparedness in response to COVID-19 Omicron subvariants BA.4 and BA.5 surge in Korea from the Korean Pediatric Society and Korean Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases   (2,351 times)
Eun Young Cho, Dong Hyun Kim, Soo-Han Choi, Ki Wook Yun, Jong Gyun Ahn, Hye-Kyung Cho, Hyunju Lee, Jina Lee, Taek-Jin Lee, Byung-Wook Eun, Jin Lee, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Yae-Jean Kim; Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(11):510-511.   Published online September 23, 2022
In order to respond to the recent surge in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and the continuously changing epidemiology of COVID-19, a sustainable and flexible pediatric healthcare system must be prepared considering the specificity of pediatric care. We demand a more proactive response from the health authorities to check the current state of pediatric COVID-19 patient care and to ensure that pediatric patients receive appropriate and timely management.
Review Article
Infection
Global varicella vaccination programs   (2,334 times)
Young Hwa Lee, Young June Choe, Jia Lee, Eunseong Kim, Jae Young Lee, Kwan Hong, Yoonsun Yoon, Yun-Kyung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(12):555-562.   Published online November 2, 2022
It is important to evaluate its effectiveness at the national level and to determine the varicella vaccine schedule based on the evidence generated through the studies.
Pulmonology
Epidemiology and surveillance implications of community-acquired pneumonia in children   (2,311 times)
Eui Jeong Roh, Jung Yeon Shim, Eun Hee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(12):563-573.   Published online October 17, 2022
The identification of the causative pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia and appropriate treatment and prevention can reduce mortality and the socioeconomic burden by reducing the medical expenses. The world has been in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic since 2020, and there is always a risk of continuous emergence and epidemic of new respiratory infectious diseases. Therefore, it is important to sustain a monitoring system for respiratory infectious diseases including pneumonia.
Letter to the Editor
Cardiology
Early prophylaxis of cardiomyopathy with beta-blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy   (2,303 times)
Heirim Lee, Jinyoung Song, I-Seok Kang, June Huh, Jin A Yoon, Yong Beom Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):507-509.   Published online August 22, 2022
Review Article
Allergy
Prevalence, comorbidities, diagnosis, and treatment of nonallergic rhinitis: real-world comparison with allergic rhinitis   (2,294 times)
Hye Yung Yum, Eun Kyo Ha, Yoon Ho Shin, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):373-383.   Published online August 10, 2020
Rhinitis is among the most common respiratory diseases in children. Nonallergic rhinitis, which involves nasal symptoms without evidence of systemic allergic inflammation or infection, is a heterogeneous entity with diverse manifestations and intensities. Nonallergic rhinitis accounts for 16%–89% of the chronic rhinitis cases, affecting 1%–50% (median 10%) of the total pediatric population. The clinical course of nonallergic rhinitis is generally...
Original Article
Other
Plastic bottle feeding produces changes in biochemical parameters in human infants – A pilot study   (2,159 times)
Mahendra K. Pant, Abul. H. Ahmad, Manisha Naithani, Jayanti Pant
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):459-465.   Published online May 19, 2022
Question: Plastic feeding bottles are used commonly to feed infants who cannot be breastfeed. Does plastic bottle feeding produce biochemical changes in infants?
Finding: The plastic bottles leach out endocrine disruptors and affects bodily functions in terms of biochemical alterations like increased blood urea, raised creatine-kinase–MB levels, and altered lipid profile in infants exposed to bottle feeding.
Meaning: Plastic bottles feeding alters bodily functions in infants.
Review Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Breastfeeding and vitamin D   (2,157 times)
Ju Sun Heo, Young Min Ahn, Ai-Rhan Ellen Kim, Son Moon Shin; for the Korean Society of Breastfeeding Medicine
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):418-429.   Published online December 14, 2021
∙ Exclusively breastfed infants are at risk of developing vitamin D deficiency associated with hypocalcemia, rickets, and various health outcomes.
∙ The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in breastfed infants differs vastly between studies and nations at 0.6%–91.1%.
∙ The vitamin D content of breast milk does not meet the requirements of exclusively breastfed infants.
∙ Most international guidelines recommend that breastfed infants be supplemented with 400 IU/day of vitamin D during the first year of life.
∙ Vitamin D intake (milk+supplements) of 800 IU/day can be considered in preterm infants along with biochemical monitoring.
Neurology
Rotavirus infection-associated central nervous system complications: clinicoradiological features and potential mechanisms   (2,115 times)
Kyung Yeon Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):483-493.   Published online February 7, 2022
∙ Rotavirus infection-associated central nervous system (CNS) complications are fairly common in children.
∙ Common clinicoradiological features include benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis, acute encephalopathies/encephalitis, cerebellitis, and neonatal rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy.
∙ Possible mechanisms for CNS complications include direct viral invasion into the brain via several potential routes such as the blood-brain barrier and vagus nerve, and entry of various brain-damaging mediators and activated immune cells into the brain.
Editorial
Gastroenterology
Ability of probiotics to reduce functional abdominal pain in children   (2,106 times)
Ji Sook Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(12):585-586.   Published online October 6, 2022
· The ability of probiotics to relieve pain caused by functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPD) in children is unclear.
· Lactobacillus reuteri may effectively reduce pain caused by childhood FAPD.
· Since the routine use of probiotics cannot be recommended due to a lack of clinical evidence, research into probiotic mixtures or symbiotics remains necessary.
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Hypertension in adulthood is programmed during the perinatal period   (2,097 times)
Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):494-495.   Published online August 12, 2022
∙ Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and preterm birth can be significant risk factors for the development of adult hypertension.
∙ Several perinatal factors of hypertension are related to IUGR, including renal, vascular, and rapid catch-up growth.
Original Article
Hematology
Effect of cyclic pamidronate administration on osteoporosis in children with β-thalassemia major: a single-center study   (2,076 times)
Mahmoud A. El-Hawy, Nagwan Y. Saleh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):405-409.   Published online June 7, 2022
Question: What is the effect of cyclic pamidronate administration on osteoporosis in children with β-thalassemia major?
Finding: The dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan findings of children with β-thalassemia major and osteoporosis were improved after pamidronate administration.
Meaning: Cyclic pamidronate effectively treated osteoporosis in children with β-thalassemia major.
General Pediatrics
Risk factors for childhood pneumonia: a case-control study in a high prevalence area in Indonesia   (2,071 times)
Vivi Ninda Sutriana, Mei Neni Sitaresmi, Abdul Wahab
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(11):588-595.   Published online March 15, 2021
Question: Is the incidence of childhood pneumonia influenced by breastfeeding and basic immunization status?
Finding: Exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization status have an effect in limiting the incidence of childhood pneumonia.
Meaning: While exclusive breastfeeding and complete basic immunization the Expanded Program on Immunization status are important factors for reducing the incidence of childhood pneumonia, indoor air pollution was also a significant risk factor.
Review Article
Neurology
Update on benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis   (2,054 times)
Yeong Seok Lee, Ga Hee Lee, Young Se Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):469-475.   Published online December 27, 2021
∙ The main pathogen for benign convulsions with mild gastroenteritis (CwG) was previously rotavirus; however, cases associated with norovirus are increasing.
∙ CwG is characterized by clustered generalized seizures. Electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging show transiently abnormal findings in the acute phase that eventually normalize with progression. Its prognosis is good, and long-term treatment is unnecessary.
∙ There are many reports on the pathophysiological mechanism of CwG, which remains unclear.
Neonatal seizures: diagnostic updates based on new definition and classification   (2,042 times)
Eun-Hee Kim, Jeongmin Shin, Byoung Kook Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):387-397.   Published online April 4, 2022
· Neonatal seizures are often electrographic-only seizures without clinical signs; therefore, the identification of electrical seizure activity on electroencephalography is the gold standard for diagnosis.
· Clinical signs of neonatal seizures are divided into motor or nonmotor seizures, and motor seizures are mostly focal or multifocal.
· Most neonatal seizures are caused by acute symptomatic etiologies, but in cases of intractable seizures, structural, genetic, or metabolic etiologies should be investigated.
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