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Most-cited articles are from the articles published during the last two years (2019 ~ ).

Review Article
Neurology
Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody-associated disorders: clinical spectrum, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment options
Yun-Jin Lee, Sang Ook Nam, Ara Ko, JuHyun Kong, Shin Yun Byun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(3):103-110.   Published online May 14, 2020
MOG antibody-associated disorder exhibits different pathophysiological and phenotypic findings than both aquaporin-4 antibody-associated neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and typical MS. MOG-antibody is of particular interest in pediatric patients with clinical or radiological non-MS typical findings. MOG-antibody was included in a diagnostic algorithm for children recommending for the first time a standardized use in clinical practice except in cases of typical MS.
Original Article
Hematology
Changes in the prevalence of anemia in Korean adolescents, 1998–2018
Jun Young An, Yoo Rha Hong, Seom Gim Kong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):86-92.   Published online November 16, 2020
Question: Over the past 21 years, has the prevalence of anemia decreased among Korean adolescents?
Finding: The prevalence of anemia in boys aged 10–18 years decreased from 3.0% to 0.5% over the study period, whereas that in girls did not change significantly over time (increased from 7.9% to 8.5%).
Meaning: The prevalence of anemia in female adolescents remains high, requiring attention and efforts to improve it.
Review Article
Allergy
Eosinophils and childhood asthma
Bong Seok Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(2):60-67.   Published online January 6, 2021
•In allergic eosinophilic asthma, eosinophils act as important effector cells and antigen-presenting cells, while in nonallergic eosinophilic asthma, type 2 innate lymphoid cells play an important role in eosinophil activation.
•Sputum eosinophil counts can be helpful for evaluating allergic airway inflammation in asthma.
• Anti-interleukin-5 has broadened the scope of asthma treatment.
Original Article
General Pediatrics
Efficacy of probiotics for managing infantile colic due to their anti-inflammatory properties: a meta-analysis and systematic review
Reza Shirazinia, Ali Akbar Golabchifar, Mohammad Reza Fazeli
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):642-651.   Published online April 12, 2021
Question: Do probiotics reduce colic symptoms?
Finding: Probiotics reduced colic symptoms in colicky infants probably due to the anti-inflammatory properties.
Meaning: Probiotics may be an effective and less noxious way to manage infantile colic.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Endocrine comorbidities of pediatric obesity
Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(12):619-627.   Published online August 26, 2021
∙ Pediatric obesity can involve endocrine comorbidities such as prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, and central precocious puberty.
∙ Prediabetes and type 2 diabetes in youth aged 10–19 years had a prevalence of 25.9% and 0.6% in 2013–2014, respectively.
∙ Dyslipidemia in Korean adolescents aged 10–18 years had a prevalence of 7.64% (total cholesterol ≥200 mg/dL), 6.09% (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥130 mg/dL), 8.69% (triglyceride ≥150 mg/dL), and 12.52% (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≤40 mg/dL) in 2007–2018.
∙ Metabolic syndrome in Korean youth has a prevalence of 1.9%–14.7% in males and 1.7%–12.6% in females with wide variation in definitions.
∙ Appropriate comorbidity screening and management and/or specialist referral are necessary for obese children and adolescents.
Original Article
Endocrinology
Correlation between total air pollutant emissions and incidence of type 1 diabetes in the Russian Federation
Hoon Sung Choi, Jin Taek Kim, Ji-Young Seo, Faina Linkov, Evgeniy Shubnikov, Hong Kyu Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):525-530.   Published online January 18, 2021
Question: Is there a quantitative relationship between air pollutant emissions and the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D)?
Finding: The incidence of T1D in each region of the Russian Federation correlated with the total air pollutants emitted each year.
Meaning: These findings suggest that air pollution contributes to the development of T1D.
Psychiatric/Psychology
Association between small for gestational age and risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Zahra Asali, Mahdieh Seyedi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):538-542.   Published online January 28, 2021
• The relationship between small for gestational age (SGA) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and remains conflicting.
• We showed based on odds ratio reports in epidemiological studies that SGA can increase the risk of ASD and SGA is a risk factor for ASD.
• The association between SGA and the risk of ASD has further momentum to the current public health emphasis on appropriate prepregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy
Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Obesity and chronic kidney disease: prevalence, mechanism, and management
Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):511-518.   Published online April 6, 2021
· Obesity is strongly associated with the development and progression of chronic kidney disease.
· Altered renal hemodynamics, metabolic effects, and lipid nephrotoxicity may play a key role in the development of obesity-related kidney disease.
· Children born to obese mothers are at increased risk of developing obesity and chronic kidney disease later in life.
· A multilevel approach is needed to prevent obesity and related chronic diseases.
Letter to the Editor
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Role of neutrophil CD11b expression in diagnosis of earlyonset neonatal sepsis in full-term infant
Safaa ELMeneza, Walaa Mohamed, Iman Elbagoury, Karima Bahagat
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):44-45.   Published online April 14, 2020
Question: Can CD11b detect sepsis in full-term infants with suspected sepsis?
Finding: The percentage of neutrophils expressing CD11b was significantly upregulated in the sepsis and suspected sepsis groups versus the control group.
Meaning: CD11b is a sensitive marker for sepsis and suspected sepsis in full-term neonates and it may be added to sepsis markers. This information would allow the neonatologist to confidently discontinue antibiotic use as long as the neonate is clinically stable.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Early menarche and its consequence in Korean female: reducing fructose intake could be one solution
Ji Hyun Kim, Jung Sub Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):12-20.   Published online May 14, 2020
In Korea, the average age of menarche has declined sharply. Early menarche is associated with psychosocial and behavioral problems and cardiometabolic disease. Excess fructose intake has been suggested as one cause of early menarche in recent studies, so reducing fructose intake may be one solution.
Other
Review of epidemiological studies on air pollution and health effects in children
Jong-Tae Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(1):3-11.   Published online June 10, 2020
This review summarized the accumulated epidemiologic evidence with emphasis on studies conducted in Korea and heterogeneity in the literature. Based on systematic reviews and meta-analyses, there is consistent evidence on the association between exposure to ambient air pollution and children’s health, especially respiratory health and adverse birth outcomes, and growing evidence on neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Perspective
Infection
Can we get a clue for the etiology of Kawasaki disease in the COVID-19 pandemic?
Jong-Woon Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(9):335-336.   Published online July 13, 2020
A new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading globally since December 2019. Children with a Kawasaki disease (KD)-like illness related with COVID-19 have been reported in Europe and the United States. They presented with symptoms of KD with or without cardiac abnormalities or shock, showing manifestations of hyperactive proinflammatory cytokine reactions like KD. Such cases may provide the opportunity for us to learn more about the etiology and pathogenesis of KD.
Original Article
Hematology
Effects of α-tocopherol on hemolysis and oxidative stress markers on red blood cells in β-thalassemia major
Nora Sovira, Munar Lubis, Pustika Amalia Wahidiyat, Franciscus D. Suyatna, Djajadiman Gatot, Saptawati Bardosono, Mohammad Sadikin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):314-320.   Published online August 15, 2020
Question: Is the α-tocopherol as an exogenous antioxidant supplementation effective in improving hemolysis and oxidative stress on β-thalassemia major?
Finding: We found significant enhancements in plasma haptoglobin were noted in the α-tocopherol group (3.01 mg/dL; range, 0.60–42.42 mg/dL; P=0.021).
Meaning: The α-tocopherol can improve hemolysis by increasing the haptoglobin level as hemolysis marker.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Evaluation of the role of ischemia modified albumin in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Mohamed A. Talat, Rabab M. Saleh, Mohammed M. Shehab, Naglaa A. Khalifa, Maha Mahmoud Hamed Sakr, Walaa M. Elmesalamy
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(8):329-334.   Published online August 15, 2020
Question: What is the value of ischemia modified albumin (IMA) as a diagnostic marker for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE)?
Finding: IMA levels were significantly higher (nearly double elevation) in hypoxic than healthy newborns in the first few hours after birth in the full-term neonates.
Meaning: IMA can be a reliable marker for the early diagnosis of neonatal HIE and can be a predictor of injury severity.
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