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Original Article
Psychiatric/Psychology
Association between small for gestational age and risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Zahra Asali, Mahdieh Seyedi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):538-542.   Published online January 28, 2021
• The relationship between small for gestational age (SGA) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and remains conflicting.
• We showed based on odds ratio reports in epidemiological studies that SGA can increase the risk of ASD and SGA is a risk factor for ASD.
• The association between SGA and the risk of ASD has further momentum to the current public health emphasis on appropriate prepregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy
Is there an association between labor induction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among children?
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Mahdieh Seyedi, Saeid Bashirian, Bita Fereidooni
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):489-493.   Published online February 5, 2021
· This meta-analysis pooled all observational (case-control and cohort) studies to obtain the association between labor induction and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children.
· The findings showed that labor induction is not associated with increased risk of ADHD among children.
Allergy
Cohort profile: National Investigation of Birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 (NICKs-2008)
Ju Hee Kim, Jung Eun Lee, So Min Shim, Eun Kyo Ha, Dong Keon Yon, Ok Hyang Kim, Ji Hyeon Baek, Hyun Yong Koh, Kyu Young Chae, Seung Won Lee, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):480-488.   Published online January 5, 2021
This national cohort study included all Korean children born in 2008 and 2009 observed over a period of more than 10 years. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to analyze disease onset prior to hospitalization based on information such as lifestyle, eating habits, and risk factors by integrating National Health Insurance System data with national health screening data.
Review Article
Nutrition
Dietary intake and nutritional status of Korean children and adolescents: a review of national survey data
Minji Kang, So Yoon Choi, Minyoung Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):443-458.   Published online December 28, 2020
In Korea, several national cross-sectional surveys monitor the diet, nutritional status, and health status of children. This continual dedicated national surveillance system contributes to the identification of nutritional and health issues, establishment of public health policies, and development of nutrition recommendations. This paper provides recent information about the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Korean Youth Risk...
Original Article
Allergy
Influence of age at complementary food introduction on the development of asthma and atopic dermatitis in Korean children aged 1–3 years
Jihyun Lee, Meeyong Shin, Bora Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):408-414.   Published online November 1, 2020
Question: Is age at the time of complementary food introduction associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) in early childhood?
Finding: We found no significant association between age at the time of complementary food introduction and the incidence of AD and asthma in Koreans aged 1–3 years.
Meaning: Our findings suggest that the influence of individual allergenic foods on the development of AD and asthma should be clarified.
Review Article
Allergy
Food allergies and food-induced anaphylaxis: role of cofactors
Meeyong shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):393-399.   Published online November 12, 2020
Question: What are the roles of cofactors in food allergies and food-induced anaphylaxis?
Finding: Cofactors reportedly play a role in approximately 14%–30% of anaphylactic reactions. Cofactors such as exercise, infection, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, dehydration, and alcohol can increase intestinal permeability and antigen uptake, thereby causing allergic symptoms.
Meaning: Routine assessment of the possible involvement of cofactors is essential for the management of patients with food-induced anaphylaxis.
Neurology
Is it really a seizure? The challenge of paroxysmal nonepileptic events in young infants
Seung Yeon Jung, Joon Won Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):384-392.   Published online September 18, 2020
Paroxysmal nonepileptic events (PNE) comprise of a variety of nonepileptic behaviors and are divided into various types. A more accurate diagnosis is possible by examining the video clip provided by the caregiver. In infants, physiologic PNE accounts for the majority of the PNE. It is important to exclude epilepsy, for which blood tests, electroencephalography, and imaging tests can facilitate differential...
Original Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Expression profiling of cultured podocytes exposed to nephrotic plasma reveals intrinsic molecular signatures of nephrotic syndrome
Stuti Panigrahi, Varsha Chhotusing Pardeshi, Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran, Karthik Neelakandan, Hari PS, Anil Vasudevan
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):355-363.   Published online November 1, 2020
Question: Is it possible to classify nephrotic syndrome (NS) through gene expression profiling of podocytes exposed to NS plasma?
Finding: Our data showed different expression profiles in podocytes exposed to nephrotic plasma from different clinical groups, suggesting the molecular stratification of patients into intrinsic subtypes.
Meaning: Transcriptome profiling of podocytes treated with NS plasma can stratify patients into intrinsic subtypes and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of podocyte injury.
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Is meconium exposure associated with autism spectrum disorders in children?
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Erfan Ayubi, Salman Khazaei, Saeid Bashirian, Mojtaba Khazaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):341-346.   Published online October 4, 2020
• Meconium exposure is weakly associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) development in children.
• More evidence based on large prospective cohort studies is required to conclude whether meconium exposure is associated with an increased risk of ASD.
Editorial
Neurology
Recent trends in autism spectrum disorder research using text mining of PubMed: importance of early detection
Seung Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):339-340.   Published online November 9, 2020
Behavioral therapy, the most widely proven intervention for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is required for life for individuals with ASD. Parent involvement, early detection, and early therapy play important roles. We must organize the risk factors for ASD and develop a screening tool that can be easily applied in the clinical, daycare, or school setting.
Review Article
Cardiology
Application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing for congenital heart disease
Heeyoung Seok, Rui Deng, Douglas B. Cowan, Da-Zhi Wang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):269-279.   Published online March 2, 2021
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system has made a big step in the genome editing which still requires technical developments for the efficient applications in the many fields including congenital heart diseases (CHDs), closely related to the genomic abnormality. In this review, we tried to cover the most updated researches of CRISPR-Cas9 in the CHDs to understand the current technologies, eventually becoming therapeutic bases for the CHD patients.
Neurology
Myths and truths about pediatric psychogenic nonepileptic seizures
Jung Sook Yeom, Heather Bernard, Sookyong Koh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):251-259.   Published online October 17, 2020
• Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are events that look like epileptic seizures but are not caused by abnormal electrical discharges.
• PNES are a manifestation of psychological and emotional distress.
• Treatment for PNES does not begin with the psychological intervention but starts with the diagnosis and how the diagnosis is delivered.
• A multifactorial biopsychosocial process and a neurobiological review are both essential components when treating PNES
Genetics and Metabolism
Understanding the genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus using Bayesian statistics and gene network analysis
Seoung Wan Nam, Kwang Seob Lee, Jae Won Yang, Younhee Ko, Michael Eisenhut, Keum Hwa Lee, Jae Il Shin, Andreas Kronbichler
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):208-222.   Published online July 15, 2020
Bayesian false-discovery probability and false-positive report probability are the 2 major Bayesian methods used to evaluate noteworthiness of a genetic variant.
Application of stricter P value is needed to confirm statistical significance in meta-analyses.
Gene network analysis of noteworthy genetic variants shows a blueprint of the genetic background in complex diseases.
Critical Care Medicine
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with acute fulminant myocarditis
Silver Heinsar, Sainath Raman, Jacky Y. Suen, Hwa Jin Cho, John F. Fraser
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):188-195.   Published online August 10, 2020
Acute fulminant myocarditis (AFM) occurs as an inflammatory response to an initial myocardial insult. Its rapid and deadly progression calls for prompt diagnosis with aggressive treatment measures. The demonstration of its excellent recovery potential has led to increasing use of mechanical circulatory support, especially extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Arrhythmias, organ failure, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and decreased ventricular function at presentation...
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