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Review Article
Allergy
Management of patients with allergic diseases in the era of COVID-19
Eun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(11):529-535.   Published online September 23, 2022
In the early days of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, allergic diseases, especially asthma, were considered to be risk factors for severe COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death. These concerns stemmed from the idea that individuals with allergic diseases are generally more susceptible to respiratory virus infections, which are major causes of exacerbation of allergic diseases. However, epidemiologic data with...
Letter to the Editor
Cardiology
Early prophylaxis of cardiomyopathy with beta-blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Heirim Lee, Jinyoung Song, I-Seok Kang, June Huh, Jin A Yoon, Yong Beom Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):507-509.   Published online August 22, 2022
Original Article
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Mediation effect of cord blood cortisol levels between maternal prepregnancy body mass index and birth weight: a hospital-based cross-sectional study
Nisanth Selvam, Jayashree K, Prasanna Mithra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):500-506.   Published online July 29, 2022
Question: What is the association between cord blood cortisol and maternal weight, birth weight, and cord blood lipid profile?
Finding: Cord blood cortisol levels did not influence the relationship between maternal weight changes or birth weight. Maternal weight changes, birth weight, and cortisol levels altered the cord blood lipid profile.
Meaning: Our findings may aid United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3 (Good Health and Well-Being) achievement by 2030.
Review Article
Oncology
Application of 3-dimensional printing implants for bone tumors
Jong Woong Park, Hyun Guy Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(10):476-482.   Published online December 23, 2021
∙ The application of 3-dimensional (3D) printing in orthopedic oncology is summarized into bone and tumor modeling, patient-specific instruments (PSIs), custom-made implants, and tissue engineering.
∙ The 3D-printed customized implant is the most central application, while modeling and PSI often play adjunct roles.
∙ Short-term surgical outcomes of custom-made 3D-printed implants are promising.
Original Article
Other
Plastic bottle feeding produces changes in biochemical parameters in human infants – A pilot study
Mahendra K. Pant, Abul. H. Ahmad, Manisha Naithani, Jayanti Pant
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(9):459-465.   Published online May 19, 2022
Question: Plastic feeding bottles are used commonly to feed infants who cannot be breastfeed. Does plastic bottle feeding produce biochemical changes in infants?
Finding: The plastic bottles leach out endocrine disruptors and affects bodily functions in terms of biochemical alterations like increased blood urea, raised creatine-kinase–MB levels, and altered lipid profile in infants exposed to bottle feeding.
Meaning: Plastic bottles feeding alters bodily functions in infants.
Cardiology
Early myocardial functional abnormalities in primary dyslipidemia: clinical and echocardiographic observations in young children from a highly consanguineous population
Nehal M. El-koofy, Aya M. Fattouh, Areef Ramadan, Mohamed A. Elmonem, Dina H. Hamed
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(8):410-416.   Published online December 8, 2021
In children with primary dyslipidemia, functional myocardial abnormalities can occur at young age, including diastolic functional impairment of both ventricles and narrowing of the aortic valve and the sinus of Valsalva. Echocardiographic evaluations of high-risk children may be as important as biochemical evaluations.
Review Article
Other
Epidemiology of pediatric fractures before versus during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic
Chi Hoon Oh, Siyeong Yoon, Kyung Rae Ko, Young Woo Kwon, Kyeong Mi Kim, Hyun Seo Park, Hogyeong Kang, Inseok Jang, Soonchul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(7):330-336.   Published online June 3, 2022
∙ The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first reported in December 2019 as a cluster outbreak in Wuhan, since then, national lockdowns have included school closures, stay-at-home orders.
∙ The characteristics of adolescent fractures were often related to physical activity such as sports-related injury.
∙ During the COVID-19 pandemic, both in the East and the West, the incidence of fractures in children and adolescents is showing a decreasing trend worldwide.
∙ Fractures in children and adolescents were significantly reduced in the proportion of relatively low-energy damage, and the incidence of fractures in adolescents with greater activity compared to children was reduced.
∙ If COVID-19 pandemic ends, normal academic and sports activities increase due to the easing of lockdown policies, the number of trauma patients related to increased activity may increase rapidly, and clinics should prepare for this change.
Original Article
Endocrinology
Effects of probiotics combined with dietary and lifestyle modification on clinical, biochemical, and radiological parameters in obese children with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a randomized clinical trial
Thushara Rodrigo, Samaranayake Dulani, Sumudu Nimali Seneviratne, Arjuna P. De Silva, Jerad Fernando, H. Janaka De Silva, Jayasekera , V. Pujitha Wickramasinghe
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):304-311.   Published online November 11, 2021
Question: Could probiotics be used as a therapeutic modality in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis?
Finding: There seem no added advantages over lifestyle modifications compared to Probiotics.
Meaning: There does not seem to be an advantage of probiotics over lifestyle modifications in improving obesity-associated metabolic derangement in children.
Review Article
Endocrinology
Pediatric hypertension based on Japanese Society of Hypertension Guidelines (JSH 2019) with actual school blood pressure screening data in Japan
Toru Kikuchi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(6):283-290.   Published online November 26, 2021
The prevalence of Japanese pediatric hypertension is 0.9% based on proper measurement protocols. Hypertensive children tend to be hypertensive adults. Pediatric essential hypertension is characterized by an absence of symptoms, obesity, a family history of hypertension, and a low birth weight. The most common causes of pediatric secondary hypertension are renal parenchymal and renovascular diseases. Important factors controlling pediatric hypertension include healthy lifestyle modifications and pharmacotherapy.
Infection
Epidemiological changes in infectious diseases during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic in Korea: a systematic review
Jong Gyun Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(4):167-171.   Published online November 30, 2021
· Nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) have had a major impact on the epidemiology of various infectious diseases in Korea.
· Respiratory diseases and gastrointestinal viral diseases were significantly reduced during the NPI period.
· The decrease in Kawasaki disease after the introduction of NPI is an unintended result.
· Infectious diseases that decreased during NPI use may re-emerge.
· We must continuously monitor the epidemiology of various infectious diseases during the coronavirus era
Original Article
Pulmonology
Modified high-flow nasal cannula for children with respiratory distress
Sarocha Itdhiamornkulchai, Aroonwan Preutthipan, Jarin Vaewpanich, Nattachai Anantasit
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):136-141.   Published online May 24, 2021
Question: Can the modified high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) provide alternative respiratory support for children with acute respiratory distress?
Finding: A total of 74 patients were assigned to the modified or commercial HFNC groups. The intubation rate, length of hospital stay, and adverse events did not differ between the 2 groups.
Meaning: The modified HFNC can provide alternative respiratory support for pediatric respiratory distress.
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Is fetal nuchal cord associated with autism spectrum disorder? A meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Maryam Ahmadi, Azam Maleki
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(3):131-135.   Published online September 24, 2021
Question: Is fetal nuchal cord a risk factor for autism spectrum disorder (ASD)?
Finding: Five articles (1 cohort, 4 case-control; total 3,088 children) were included in the present meta-analysis. Fetal nuchal cord was not a risk factor for ASD (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.66–1.57). There was homogeneity among studies that reported a risk of ASD (I2=0.0).
Meaning: Fetal nuchal cord is not a risk factor for ASD.
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Effectiveness of obesity interventions among South Korean children and adolescents and importance of the type of intervention component: a meta-analysis
Siyoung Choe, Jaesin Sa, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Deokjin Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):98-107.   Published online November 23, 2021
Question: What is the overall effect of obesity interventions among Korean children and what affects their effectiveness?
Finding: Interventions were strongly favored over controls. Interventions including at least one physical activity component were significantly better than those that did not. Sex, age, baseline weight category, intervention duration, and the number of intervention components were not significant.
Meaning: Future obesity interventions for Korean children must seek to include physical activity components.
Endocrinology
Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in offspring: a meta-analysis
Azam Maleki, Saeid Bashirian, Ali Reza Soltanian, Ensiyeh Jenabi, Abdollah Farhadinasab
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2022;65(2):85-89.   Published online April 15, 2021
Question: Have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) increased risk of having an offspring with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?
Finding: Six articles (3 cohort and 3 case-control studies; 401,413 total ADHD cases) met the study criteria. Maternal PCOS was associated with an increased risk of ADHD in the offspring based on odds ratio (OR) and relative ratio (RR) (OR, 1.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.57) and (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.35–1.51), respectively.
Meaning: Our study showed that maternal PCOS is a risk factor for ADHD.
Psychiatric/Psychology
Association between small for gestational age and risk of autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analysis
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Saeid Bashirian, Zahra Asali, Mahdieh Seyedi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(10):538-542.   Published online January 28, 2021
• The relationship between small for gestational age (SGA) and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and remains conflicting.
• We showed based on odds ratio reports in epidemiological studies that SGA can increase the risk of ASD and SGA is a risk factor for ASD.
• The association between SGA and the risk of ASD has further momentum to the current public health emphasis on appropriate prepregnancy weight and weight gain during pregnancy
Is there an association between labor induction and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among children?
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Mahdieh Seyedi, Saeid Bashirian, Bita Fereidooni
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):489-493.   Published online February 5, 2021
· This meta-analysis pooled all observational (case-control and cohort) studies to obtain the association between labor induction and the risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among children.
· The findings showed that labor induction is not associated with increased risk of ADHD among children.
Allergy
Cohort profile: National Investigation of Birth Cohort in Korea study 2008 (NICKs-2008)
Ju Hee Kim, Jung Eun Lee, So Min Shim, Eun Kyo Ha, Dong Keon Yon, Ok Hyang Kim, Ji Hyeon Baek, Hyun Yong Koh, Kyu Young Chae, Seung Won Lee, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):480-488.   Published online January 5, 2021
This national cohort study included all Korean children born in 2008 and 2009 observed over a period of more than 10 years. Our findings demonstrate that it is possible to analyze disease onset prior to hospitalization based on information such as lifestyle, eating habits, and risk factors by integrating National Health Insurance System data with national health screening data.
Review Article
Nutrition
Dietary intake and nutritional status of Korean children and adolescents: a review of national survey data
Minji Kang, So Yoon Choi, Minyoung Jung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(9):443-458.   Published online December 28, 2020
In Korea, several national cross-sectional surveys monitor the diet, nutritional status, and health status of children. This continual dedicated national surveillance system contributes to the identification of nutritional and health issues, establishment of public health policies, and development of nutrition recommendations. This paper provides recent information about the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Korean Youth Risk...
Original Article
Allergy
Influence of age at complementary food introduction on the development of asthma and atopic dermatitis in Korean children aged 1–3 years
Jihyun Lee, Meeyong Shin, Bora Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):408-414.   Published online November 1, 2020
Question: Is age at the time of complementary food introduction associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis (AD) in early childhood?
Finding: We found no significant association between age at the time of complementary food introduction and the incidence of AD and asthma in Koreans aged 1–3 years.
Meaning: Our findings suggest that the influence of individual allergenic foods on the development of AD and asthma should be clarified.
Review Article
Allergy
Food allergies and food-induced anaphylaxis: role of cofactors
Meeyong shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):393-399.   Published online November 12, 2020
Question: What are the roles of cofactors in food allergies and food-induced anaphylaxis?
Finding: Cofactors reportedly play a role in approximately 14%–30% of anaphylactic reactions. Cofactors such as exercise, infection, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, dehydration, and alcohol can increase intestinal permeability and antigen uptake, thereby causing allergic symptoms.
Meaning: Routine assessment of the possible involvement of cofactors is essential for the management of patients with food-induced anaphylaxis.
Neurology
Is it really a seizure? The challenge of paroxysmal nonepileptic events in young infants
Seung Yeon Jung, Joon Won Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(8):384-392.   Published online September 18, 2020
Paroxysmal nonepileptic events (PNE) comprise of a variety of nonepileptic behaviors and are divided into various types. A more accurate diagnosis is possible by examining the video clip provided by the caregiver. In infants, physiologic PNE accounts for the majority of the PNE. It is important to exclude epilepsy, for which blood tests, electroencephalography, and imaging tests can facilitate differential...
Original Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Expression profiling of cultured podocytes exposed to nephrotic plasma reveals intrinsic molecular signatures of nephrotic syndrome
Stuti Panigrahi, Varsha Chhotusing Pardeshi, Karthikeyan Chandrasekaran, Karthik Neelakandan, Hari PS, Anil Vasudevan
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):355-363.   Published online November 1, 2020
Question: Is it possible to classify nephrotic syndrome (NS) through gene expression profiling of podocytes exposed to NS plasma?
Finding: Our data showed different expression profiles in podocytes exposed to nephrotic plasma from different clinical groups, suggesting the molecular stratification of patients into intrinsic subtypes.
Meaning: Transcriptome profiling of podocytes treated with NS plasma can stratify patients into intrinsic subtypes and provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of podocyte injury.
Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Is meconium exposure associated with autism spectrum disorders in children?
Ensiyeh Jenabi, Erfan Ayubi, Salman Khazaei, Saeid Bashirian, Mojtaba Khazaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):341-346.   Published online October 4, 2020
• Meconium exposure is weakly associated with an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) development in children.
• More evidence based on large prospective cohort studies is required to conclude whether meconium exposure is associated with an increased risk of ASD.
Editorial
Neurology
Recent trends in autism spectrum disorder research using text mining of PubMed: importance of early detection
Seung Soo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(7):339-340.   Published online November 9, 2020
Behavioral therapy, the most widely proven intervention for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is required for life for individuals with ASD. Parent involvement, early detection, and early therapy play important roles. We must organize the risk factors for ASD and develop a screening tool that can be easily applied in the clinical, daycare, or school setting.
Review Article
Cardiology
Application of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing for congenital heart disease
Heeyoung Seok, Rui Deng, Douglas B. Cowan, Da-Zhi Wang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):269-279.   Published online March 2, 2021
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system has made a big step in the genome editing which still requires technical developments for the efficient applications in the many fields including congenital heart diseases (CHDs), closely related to the genomic abnormality. In this review, we tried to cover the most updated researches of CRISPR-Cas9 in the CHDs to understand the current technologies, eventually becoming therapeutic bases for the CHD patients.
Neurology
Myths and truths about pediatric psychogenic nonepileptic seizures
Jung Sook Yeom, Heather Bernard, Sookyong Koh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(6):251-259.   Published online October 17, 2020
• Psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) are events that look like epileptic seizures but are not caused by abnormal electrical discharges.
• PNES are a manifestation of psychological and emotional distress.
• Treatment for PNES does not begin with the psychological intervention but starts with the diagnosis and how the diagnosis is delivered.
• A multifactorial biopsychosocial process and a neurobiological review are both essential components when treating PNES
Genetics and Metabolism
Understanding the genetics of systemic lupus erythematosus using Bayesian statistics and gene network analysis
Seoung Wan Nam, Kwang Seob Lee, Jae Won Yang, Younhee Ko, Michael Eisenhut, Keum Hwa Lee, Jae Il Shin, Andreas Kronbichler
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):208-222.   Published online July 15, 2020
Bayesian false-discovery probability and false-positive report probability are the 2 major Bayesian methods used to evaluate noteworthiness of a genetic variant.
Application of stricter P value is needed to confirm statistical significance in meta-analyses.
Gene network analysis of noteworthy genetic variants shows a blueprint of the genetic background in complex diseases.
Critical Care Medicine
The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in children with acute fulminant myocarditis
Silver Heinsar, Sainath Raman, Jacky Y. Suen, Hwa Jin Cho, John F. Fraser
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(5):188-195.   Published online August 10, 2020
Acute fulminant myocarditis (AFM) occurs as an inflammatory response to an initial myocardial insult. Its rapid and deadly progression calls for prompt diagnosis with aggressive treatment measures. The demonstration of its excellent recovery potential has led to increasing use of mechanical circulatory support, especially extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Arrhythmias, organ failure, elevated cardiac biomarkers, and decreased ventricular function at presentation...
Genetics and Metabolism
Neurofibromatosis type I: points to be considered by general pediatricians
Eungu Kang, Hee Mang Yoon, Beom Hee Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2021;64(4):149-156.   Published online July 15, 2020
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a prevalent genetic disease that is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner, is characterized by multiple cutaneous café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas as well as various degrees of neurological, skeletal, and neoplastic manifestations. The clinical features of NF1 increase in frequency with age, while the clinical diagnosis can remain undetermined in some pediatric patients. Importantly, affected patients...
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