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Case Report
Asymptomatic maternal 3-methylcrotonylglycinuria detected by her unaffected baby's neonatal screening test
Sun Hee Lee, Yong Hee Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(7):329-332.   Published online July 23, 2014

3-methylcrotonyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (3MCC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder in which leucine catabolism is hampered, leading to increased urinary excretion of 3-methylcrotonylglycine. In addition, 3-hydroxyisovalerylcarnitine levels increase in the blood, and the elevated levels form the basis of neonatal screening. 3MCC deficiency symptoms are variable, ranging from neonatal onset with severe neurological abnormality to a normal, asymptomatic phenotype. Although...

A chromosome 1q44 deletion in a 4-month-old girl; The first report in Korea
Joo Hyun Cho, Eun Song Song, Hee Na Kim, Burm Seok Oh, Young Youn Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(6):292-296.   Published online June 30, 2014

The deletion of the distal long arm of chromosome 1 is associated with a characteristic facial appearance and a pattern of associated malformations. Characteristic manifestations include a round face with prominent 'cupid's bow' and downturned corners of the mouth, thin vermilion borders of lips, a long upper lip with a smooth philtrum, a short and broad nose, epicanthal folds, apparently...

Two adolescent patients with coexistent Graves' disease and Moyamoya disease in Korea
Chong Kun Cheon, Su Yung Kim, Jae-Ho Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(6):287-291.   Published online June 30, 2014

Moyamoya disease is a cerebrovascular condition that results in the narrowing of the vessels of the circle of Willis and collateral vessel formation at the base of the brain. Although relationships between Graves' disease and cerebrovascular accidents in Moyamoya disease are obscure, the coexistence of the two diseases is noteworthy. Moyamoya disease has been rarely reported in adolescent patients with...

Gastrointestinal hemangioma in childhood: a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding
Eon Chul Han, Soo-Hong Kim, Hyun-Young Kim, Sung-Eun Jung, Kwi-Won Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(5):245-249.   Published online May 31, 2014

Gastrointestinal (GI) hemangiomas are relatively rare benign vascular tumors. The choice of an appropriate diagnostic method depends on patient age, anatomic location, and presenting symptoms. However, GI hemangiomas are not a common suspected cause of GI bleeding in children because of their rarity. Based on medical history, laboratory results, and imaging study findings, the patient could be treated with either...

Identification of a novel mutation in a patient with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia
Ye Seung Lee, Hui Kwon Kim, Hye Rim Kim, Jong Yoon Lee, Joong Wan Choi, Eun Ju Bae, Phil Soo Oh, Won Il Park, Chang Seok Ki, Hong Jin Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(5):240-244.   Published online May 31, 2014

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP Ia) is a disorder characterized by multiform hormonal resistance including parathyroid hormone (PTH) resistance and Albright hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO). It is caused by heterozygous inactivating mutations within the Gs alpha-encoding GNAS exons. A 9-year-old boy presented with clinical and laboratory abnormalities including hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, PTH resistance, multihormone resistance and AHO (round face, short stature, obesity, brachydactyly...

Pulmonary hemorrhage in pediatric lupus anticoagulant hypoprothrombinemia syndrome
Ji Soo Kim, Min Jae Kim, E Young Bae, Dae Chul Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(4):202-205.   Published online April 30, 2014

Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS), a very rare disease that is caused by the presence of antifactor II antibodies, is usually counterbalanced by the prothrombotic effect of lupus anticoagulant (LAC). Patients with LAHPS are treated using fresh frozen plasma, steroids, immunosuppressive agents, and immunoglobulins for managing the disease and controlling hemorrhages. Notably, steroids are the important treatment for treating hypoprothrombinemia and...

Percutaneous ultrasound-guided thrombin injection is effective even in infants with external iliac artery pseudoaneurysms
Min-Jung Cho, Ung-Bae Jeon, Ki-Seok Choo, Hyoung-Doo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(4):199-201.   Published online April 30, 2014

Iatrogenic pseudoaneurysms are extremely rare in children. Conventional management of pseudoaneurysms in adults has included surgical repair, ultrasound-guided compression, and more recently, endovascular embolization. However, in infants and children, there is little information regarding the applicability of such treatment modalities, which have been effective in adults, because of its rarity. Here, we present the case of a 6-month-old infant who...

Toxic epidermal necrolysis induced by lamotrigine treatment in a child
Youngsuk Yi, Jeong Ho Lee, Eun Sook Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(3):153-156.   Published online March 31, 2014

Toxic epidermal necrolysis is an unpredictable and severe adverse drug reaction. In toxic epidermal necrolysis, epidermal damage appears to result from keratinocyte apoptosis. This condition is triggered by many factors, principally drugs such as antiepileptic medications, antibiotics (particularly sulfonamide), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, allopurinol, and nevirapine. Lamotrigine has been reported potentially cause serious cutaneous reactions, and concomitant use of valproic acid...

Congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A with residual merosin expression
Hyo Jeong Kim, Young-Chul Choi, Hyung Jun Park, Young-Mock Lee, Heung Dong Kim, Joon Soo Lee, Hoon-Chul Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(3):149-152.   Published online March 31, 2014

Congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hypotonia, elevated serum creatine kinase level, delayed motor milestones, white matter changes observed by brain magnetic resonance imaging, and normal intelligence. A mutation in the laminin α2 (LAMA2) gene, located at 6q22-23, is a genetic cause of MDC1A. Patients have merosin (laminin α2)-deficient skeletal muscles. However, the...

Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome complicated by intestinal perforation in a child with typical hemolytic uremic syndrome
Hye Jin Chang, Hwa Young Kim, Jae Hong Choi, Hyun Jin Choi, Jae Sung Ko, Il Soo Ha, Hae Il Cheong, Yong Choi, Hee Gyung Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(2):96-99.   Published online February 24, 2014

Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is one of the most common causes of acute renal failure in childhood and is primarily diagnosed in up to 4.5% of children who undergo chronic renal replacement therapy. Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 is the predominant bacterial strain identified in patients with HUS; more than 100 types of Shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) subtypes have...

Griscelli syndrome type 2: a novel mutation in RAB27A gene with different clinical features in 2 siblings: a diagnostic conundrum
Kirtisudha Mishra, Shilpy Singla, Suvasini Sharma, Renu Saxena, Vineeta Vijay Batra
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(2):91-95.   Published online February 24, 2014

Griscelli syndrome type 2 (GS2) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the RAB27A gene. It is characterized by cutaneous hypopigmentation, immunodeficiency, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. We describe 2 brothers who had GS2 with clinically diverse manifestations. The elder brother presented with a purely neurological picture, whereas the younger one presented with fever, pancytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and erythema nodosum....

A novel PRF1 gene mutation in a fatal neonate case with type 2 familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis
Jae Yeon Kim, Jeong Hee Shin, Se In Sung, Jin Kyu Kim, Ji Mi Jung, So Yoon Ahn, Eun Sun Kim, Ja-Young Seo, Eun-Sook Kang, Sun-Hee Kim, Hee-Jin Kim, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(1):50-53.   Published online January 31, 2014

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) occurs in the primary form (genetic or familial) or secondary form (acquired). The familial form of HLH (FHL) is a potentially fatal autosomal recessive disorder that occurs because of constitutional defects in cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Here, we report a fatal neonatal case of type 2 FHL (FHL2) that involved a novel frameshift mutation. Clinically, the newborn presented with...

Identification of a novel mutation in the CHD7 gene in a patient with CHARGE syndrome
Yeonkyung Kim, Ho-Seok Lee, Jung-Seok Yu, Kangmo Ahn, Chang-Seok Ki, Jihyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(1):46-49.   Published online January 31, 2014

CHARGE syndrome has been estimated to occur in 1:10,000 births worldwide and shows various clinical manifestations. It is a genetic disorder characterized by a specific and a recognizable pattern of anomalies. The major clinical features are ocular coloboma, heart malformations, atresia of the choanae, growth retardation, genital hypoplasia, and ear abnormalities. The chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 7 (CHD7) gene, located...

Moyamoya syndrome occurred in a girl with an inactive systemic lupus erythematosus
Yun-Jin Lee, Gyu Min Yeon, Sang Ook Nam, Su Yung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(12):545-549.   Published online December 20, 2013

We report the case of a 17-year-old Korean girl with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who presented with sudden weakness of the right-sided extremities and dysarthria. Oral prednisolone was being taken to control SLE. Results of clinical and laboratory examinations did not show any evidence of antiphospholipid syndrome or thromboembolic disease nor SLE activity. Cerebral angiography showed stenosis of the left...

Asymptomatic moyamoya syndrome, atlantoaxial subluxation and basal ganglia calcification in a child with Down syndrome
Kyung Yeon Lee, Kun-Soo Lee, Young Cheol Weon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(12):540-543.   Published online December 20, 2013

Down syndrome, the most common chromosomal abnormality, may be associated with various neurologic complications such as moyamoya syndrome, cervical spinal cord compression due to atlantoaxial subluxation, and basal ganglia damage, as well as epileptic seizures and stroke. Many cases of Down syndrome accompanied by isolated neurologic manifestations have been reported in children; however, Down syndrome with multiple neurologic conditions is...

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