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Review Article
Comprehensive understanding of atrial septal defects by imaging studies for successful transcatheter closure
Jinyoung Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(7):297-303.   Published online July 23, 2014

Transcatheter closure of atrial septal defects has become a popular procedure. The availability of a preprocedural imaging study is crucial for a safe and successful closure. Both the anatomy and morphology of the defect should be precisely evaluated before the procedure. Three-dimensional (3D) echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography are helpful for understanding the morphology of a defect, which is important...

Psychosocial adjustment and quality of life of adolescents and adults with congenital heart disease
Gi Beom Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(6):257-263.   Published online June 30, 2014

The incidence of people living with congenital heart disease (CHD) has been increasing every year owing to remarkable advances in surgical and catheter intervention techniques and devices, and improved knowledge of critical care for patients with CHD. However, these patients continue to face physical, psychosocial, and environmental challenges, and a number of studies have shown higher rates of depression and...

Mesenchymal stem cells transplantation for neuroprotection in preterm infants with severe intraventricular hemorrhage
So Yoon Ahn, Yun Sil Chang, Won Soon Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(6):251-256.   Published online June 30, 2014

Severe intraventricular hemorrhaging (IVH) in premature infants and subsequent posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) causes significant mortality and life-long neurological complications, including seizures, cerebral palsy, and developmental retardation. However, there are currently no effective therapies for neonatal IVH. The pathogenesis of PHH has been mainly explained by inflammation within the subarachnoid spaces due to the hemolysis of extravasated blood after IVH. Obliterative...

Association of wheezing phenotypes with fractional exhaled nitric oxide in children
Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(5):211-216.   Published online May 31, 2014

Asthma comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by airway inflammation, airway obstruction, and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Airway inflammation, which induces AHR and recurrence of asthma, is the main pathophysiology of asthma. The fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level is a noninvasive, reproducible measurement of eosinophilic airway inflammation that is easy to perform in young children. As airway inflammation precedes...

Determinants of sensitization to allergen in infants and young children
Hyeong Yun Kim, Youn Ho Shin, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(5):205-210.   Published online May 31, 2014

Atopic sensitization is a complex phenomenon that changes dynamically with age throughout childhood; its prevalence increases with age in young children. Additionally, with increasing age, the prevalence of sensitization to inhalant allergens and the prevalence of polysensitization to allergens increase. It is also well established that the development of atopic sensitization is the result of a complex interplay of genetic...

Effectiveness and safety of seasonal influenza vaccination in children with underlying respiratory diseases and allergy
Jin-Han Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(4):164-170.   Published online April 30, 2014

Influenza causes acute respiratory infections and various complications. Children in the high-risk group have higher complication and hospitalization rates than high-risk elderly individuals. Influenza prevention in children is important, as they can be a source infection spread in their communities. Influenza vaccination is strongly recommended for high-risk children with chronic underlying circulatory and respiratory disease, immature infants, and children receiving...

Genetic risk factors associated with respiratory distress syndrome
Heui Seung Jo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(4):157-163.   Published online April 30, 2014

Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) among preterm infants is typically due to a quantitative deficiency of pulmonary surfactant. Aside from the degree of prematurity, diverse environmental and genetic factors can affect the development of RDS. The variance of the risk of RDS in various races/ethnicities or monozygotic/dizygotic twins has suggested genetic influences on this disorder. So far, several specific mutations in...

Clinical utilization of cord blood over human health: experience of stem cell transplantation and cell therapy using cord blood in Korea
Young-Ho Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(3):110-116.   Published online March 31, 2014

Cord blood (CB) has been used as an important and ethical source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) as well as cell therapy by manufacturing mesenchymal stem cell, induced pleuripotential stem cell or just isolating mononuclear cell from CB. Recently, the application of cell-based therapy using CB has expanded its clinical utility, particularly, by using autologous CB in children with...

Evidence for adverse effect of perinatal glucocorticoid use on the developing brain
Young Pyo Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(3):101-109.   Published online March 31, 2014

The use of glucocorticoids (GCs) in the perinatal period is suspected of being associated with adverse effects on long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm infants. Repeated administration of antenatal GCs to mothers at risk of preterm birth may adversely affect fetal growth and head circumference. Fetal exposure to excess GCs during critical periods of brain development may profoundly modify the limbic...

Antibiotics resistance of Helicobacter pylori and treatment modalities in children with H. pylori infection
Ji-Hyun Seo, Hyang-Ok Woo, Hee-Shang Youn, Kwang-Ho Rhee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(2):67-71.   Published online February 24, 2014

Pediatric infection with Helicobacter pylori may occur early in childhood and persist lifelong. Global pediatric clinical studies have reported a decreasing tendency in the overall rate of H. pylori eradication. In pediatric patients with H. pylori infection, pediatric patients with peptic ulcer, and the first-degree relatives of patients with a history of gastric cancer, it is commonly recommended that H....

Efficacy and effectiveness of extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines
Hyunju Lee, Eun Hwa Choi, Hoan Jong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(2):55-66.   Published online February 24, 2014

The 7-valent pneumococcal protein conjugate vaccine (PCV7) has been shown to be highly efficacious against invasive pneumococcal diseases and effective against pneumonia and in reducing otitis media. The introduction of PCV7 has resulted in major changes in the epidemiology of pneumococcal diseases. However, pneumococcal vaccines induce serotype-specific immunity, and a relative increase in non-vaccine serotypes has been reported following the...

Primary repair of symptomatic neonates with tetralogy of Fallot with or without pulmonary atresia
Chang-Ha Lee, Jae Gun Kwak, Cheul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(1):19-25.   Published online January 31, 2014

Recently, surgical outcomes of repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) have improved. For patients with TOF older than 3 months, primary repair has been advocated regardless of symptoms. However, a surgical approach to symptomatic TOF in neonates or very young infants remains elusive. Traditionally, there have been two surgical options for these patients: primary repair versus an initial aortopulmonary shunt...

Channelopathies
June-Bum Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(1):1-18.   Published online January 31, 2014

Channelopathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders resulting from the dysfunction of ion channels located in the membranes of all cells and many cellular organelles. These include diseases of the nervous system (e.g., generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus, familial hemiplegic migraine, episodic ataxia, and hyperkalemic and hypokalemic periodic paralysis), the cardiovascular system (e.g., long QT syndrome, short QT syndrome,...

Inflammation and hyponatremia: an underrecognized condition?
Se Jin Park, Jae Il Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(12):519-522.   Published online December 20, 2013

Timely diagnosis of hyponatremia is important for preventing potential morbidity and mortality as it is often an indicator of underlying disease. The most common cause of eurvolemic hyponatremia is the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion. Recent studies have demonstrated that proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL) 1β and IL-6 are involved in the development of hyponatremia, a condition...

Food protein-induced proctocolitis: Is this allergic disorder a reality or a phantom in neonates?
Jin-Bok Hwang, Jeana Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(12):514-518.   Published online December 20, 2013

The etiology of small and fresh rectal bleeding in neonates who are not sick is usually unknown; the only known cause is food protein-induced proctocolitis (FPIPC). It has been recently reported that FPIPC is a rare cause of rectal bleeding in newborns, and most cases have been proved to be due to idiopathic neonatal transient colitis. A recommended strategy for...

Mechanisms of immune tolerance to allergens in children
Umut C. Kucuksezer, Cevdet Ozdemir, Mübeccel Akdis, Cezmi A. Akdis
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(12):505-513.   Published online December 20, 2013

Because the prevalence of allergic diseases has significantly increased in recent years, understanding the causes and mechanisms of these disorders is of high importance, and intense investigations are ongoing. Current knowledge pinpoints immune tolerance mechanisms as indispensable for healthy immune response to allergens in daily life. It is evident that development and maintenance of allergens-pecific T cell tolerance is of...

Prevalence of rotavirus genotypes in South Korea in 1989-2009: implications for a nationwide rotavirus vaccine program
Van Thai Than, Wonyong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(11):465-473.   Published online November 27, 2013

The epidemiology of human group A rotavirus was analyzed by examining genotypic data acquired from 1989 to 2009 in South Korea. This information was derived from all the available published articles on rotavirus studies in South Korea, retrieved from both the PubMed and KoreaMed databases. Four common G types (G1, G2, G3, and G4) and three common P types (P[8],...

The promotion of mental health and the prevention of mental health problems in child and adolescent
Sun Mi Cho, Yun Mi Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(11):459-464.   Published online November 27, 2013

Improving mental health and reducing the burden of mental illness are complementary strategies which, along with the treatment and rehabilitation of people with mental disorders, significantly improve population health and well-being. A Institute of Medicine report describes a range of interventions for mental disorders that included treatment and maintenance, reserving the term "prevention" for efforts that occur before onset of...

Magnetoencephalography in pediatric epilepsy
Hunmin Kim, Chun Kee Chung, Hee Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(10):431-438.   Published online October 31, 2013

Magnetoencephalography (MEG) records the magnetic field generated by electrical activity of cortical neurons. The signal is not distorted or attenuated, and it is contactless recording that can be performed comfortably even for longer than an hour. It has excellent and decent temporal resolution, especially when it is combined with the patient's own brain magnetic resonance imaging (magnetic source imaging). Data...

Measurements of fractional exhaled nitric oxide in pediatric asthma
Youn-Soo Hahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(10):424-430.   Published online October 31, 2013

Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) has been extensively investigated as a noninvasive marker of airway inflammation in asthma. The increased NO expression induced by inflammatory mediators in airways can be monitored easily in exhaled air from asthmatic children. Based on the relationship between the increased NO expression and eosinophilic airway inflammation, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements become an important adjunct...

Vitamin D status and childhood health
Youn Ho Shin, Hye Jung Shin, Yong-Jae Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(10):417-423.   Published online October 31, 2013

Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovitaminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency) is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in...

Kawasaki disease in infants
Jung Sook Yeom, Hyang Ok Woo, Ji Sook Park, Eun Sil Park, Ji-Hyun Seo, Hee-Shang Youn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(9):377-382.   Published online September 30, 2013

Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile illness that is the predominant cause of pediatric acquired heart disease in infants and young children. Because the diagnosis of KD depends on clinical manifestations, incomplete cases are difficult to diagnose, especially in infants younger than 1 year. Incomplete clinical manifestations in infants are related with the development of KD-associated coronary artery abnormalities....

Clinical efficacy and mechanism of probiotics in allergic diseases
Ha-Jung Kim, Hyung Young Kim, So-Yeon Lee, Ju-Hee Seo, Eun Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(9):369-376.   Published online September 30, 2013

A complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors partially contributes to the development of allergic diseases by affecting development during prenatal and early life. To explain the dramatic increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases, the hygiene hypothesis proposed that early exposure to infection prevented allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis has changed to the microbial hypothesis, in which exposure to...

Lower fat and better quality diet therapy for children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy
Jung-Rim Yoon, Heung Dong Kim, Hoon-Chul Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(8):327-331.   Published online August 27, 2013

The ketogenic diet (KD) is an established, effective, nonpharmacologic treatment for children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Although the KD is the most well-established dietary therapy for epilepsy, it is too restrictive and is associated with serious complications; therefore, alternative lower-fat diets, including a modified Atkins diet and low-glycemic index diet, have been developed. Recent ongoing clinical evidence suggests that other dietary...

Clinical approach to quality of life in children with end-stage renal disease
Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(8):323-326.   Published online August 27, 2013

Quality of life in addition to various medical problems in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) should be objectively assessed to accomplish normal growth and development during childhood. However, unfortunately, studies of quality of life (QoL) in children with ESRD have been not popular yet and there are only fewer suitable assessment tools compared with adults. Recently, disease-specific modules to...

The current status of the Korean student health examination
Hye-Jung Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(8):313-322.   Published online August 27, 2013

Recent trends place an emphasis on school health care, the ultimate goal of which is to protect, maintain, and promote students' health. School health care is a program that integrates health care services, health education, health counseling, and local social health services. The student health examination (SHE) system is a part of school health care and schools and communities must...

Temporal lobe epilepsy surgery in children versus adults: from etiologies to outcomes
Yun-Jin Lee, Joon Soo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(7):275-281.   Published online July 19, 2013

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of medically intractable epilepsy in adults and children, and mesial temporal sclerosis is the most common underlying cause of TLE. Unlike in the case of adults, TLE in infants and young children often has etiologies other than mesial temporal sclerosis, such as tumors, cortical dysplasia, trauma, and vascular malformations. Differences in...

The role of cytokines in seizures: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1Ra, IL-8, and IL-10
Youngah Youn, In Kyung Sung, In Goo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(7):271-274.   Published online July 19, 2013

Brain insults, including neurotrauma, infection, and perinatal injuries such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, generate inflammation in the brain. These inflammatory cascades induce a wide spectrum of cytokines, which can cause neuron degeneration, have neurotoxic effects on brain tissue, and lead to the development of seizures, even if they are subclinical and occur at birth. Cytokines are secreted by the glial...

Pulmonary stenosis and pulmonary regurgitation: both ends of the spectrum in residual hemodynamic impairment after tetralogy of Fallot repair
Byung Won Yoo, Han Ki Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(6):235-241.   Published online June 21, 2013

Repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) has shown excellent outcomes. However it leaves varying degrees of residual hemodynamic impairment, with severe pulmonary stenosis (PS) and free pulmonary regurgitation (PR) at both ends of the spectrum. Since the 1980s, studies evaluating late outcomes after TOF repair revealed the adverse impacts of residual chronic PR on RV volume and function; thus, a...

Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents: the Korean Pediatric Society, 2013
Dae Sun Jo, Jong-Hyun Kim, Eun Hwa Choi, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Yun Kyung Kim, Jina Lee, Byung Wook Eun, Soo Young Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Kyung-Hyo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2013;56(6):231-234.   Published online June 21, 2013

This article contains the recommended immunization schedule by the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society, updated in March 2013, when Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine is now included in the National Immunization Program in Korea. It also includes catch-up immunization schedule for children and adolescents who are behind the recommended schedule. These schedules are a minor revision...

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