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Cardiology
Apoptosis and remodeling in adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy rat model
Young Mi Hong, Hyeryon Lee, Min-Sun Cho, Kwan Chang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(11):365-372.   Published online November 27, 2017
Purpose

The mechanism for the pathogenesis of adriamycin (ADR)-induced cardiomyopathy is not yet known. Different hypotheses include the production of free radicals, an interaction between ADR and nuclear components, and a disruption in cardiac-specific gene expression. Apoptosis has also been proposed as being involved in cardiac dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to determine if apoptosis might play a role...

Subtle inflammation: a possible mechanism of future cardiovascular risk in obese children
Watchareewan Sontichai, Prapai Dejkhamron, Peraphan Pothacharoen, Prachya Kongtaweelert, Kevalee Unachak, Nuthapong Ukarapol
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(11):359-364.   Published online November 27, 2017
Purpose

The risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been shown to be associated with systemic inflammation in obese adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of MetS and its relation to inflammatory markers in obese Thai children.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted. Children with history of endogenous obesity, chronic diseases, drug ingestion, and any...

Neonatology (Perinatology)
Hearing loss screening tool (COBRA score) for newborns in primary care setting
Watcharapol Poonual, Niramon Navacharoen, Jaran Kangsanarak, Sirianong Namwongprom, Surasak Saokaew
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(11):353-358.   Published online November 27, 2017
Purpose

To develop and evaluate a simple screening tool to assess hearing loss in newborns. A derived score was compared with the standard clinical practice tool.

Methods

This cohort study was designed to screen the hearing of newborns using transiently evoked otoacoustic emission and auditory brain stem response, and to determine the risk factors associated with hearing loss of newborns in 3 tertiary...

Endocrinology
Screening of SHOX gene sequence variants in Saudi Arabian children with idiopathic short stature
Abdulla A. Alharthi, Ehab I. El-Hallous, Iman M. Talaat, Hamed A. Alghamdi, Matar I. Almalki, Ahmed Gaber
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(10):327-332.   Published online October 20, 2017
Purpose

Short stature affects approximately 2%–3% of children, representing one of the most frequent disorders for which clinical attention is sought during childhood. Despite assumed genetic heterogeneity, mutations or deletions in the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX) are frequently detected in subjects with short stature. Idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to patients with short stature for various unknown reasons. The goal...

Nutrition
Local-food-based complementary feeding for the nutritional status of children ages 6–36 months in rural areas of Indonesia
Tantut Susanto, Syahrul, Lantin Sulistyorini, Rondhianto, Alfi Yudisianto
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(10):320-326.   Published online October 20, 2017
Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate a pilot project of the Nursing Feeding Center “Posyandu Plus” (NFCPP) through local food-based complementary feeding (LFCF) program designed to improve the nutritional status of children aged 6–36 months at community health centers in Indonesia.

Methods

A quasi-experimental design was used to obtain data regarding the nutritional status of 109 children who participated in the project from...

Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test for infants and children for the evaluation of developmental delay in Korean infants and children: a single-center study
Chung-Hyuk Yim, Gun-Ha Kim, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(10):312-319.   Published online October 20, 2017
Purpose

To evaluate the usefulness of the Korean Developmental Screening Test (K-DST) for infants and children for developmental delay assessment.

Methods

This study was based on retrospective studies of the results of the K-DST, Preschool Receptive-Expressive Language Scale (PRES), Sequenced Language Scale for Infants (SELSI), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and extensive...

Neurology
Serum neuron specific enolase is increased in pediatric acute encephalitis syndrome
Dian Pratamastuti, Prastiya Indra Gunawan, Darto Saharso
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(9):302-306.   Published online September 21, 2017
Purpose

This study aimed to investigate whether serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was expressed in acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) that causes neuronal damage in children.

Methods

This prospective observational study was conducted in the pediatric neurology ward of Soetomo Hospital. Cases of AES with ages ranging from 1 month to 12 years were included. Cases that were categorized as simple and complex febrile seizures...

Pulmonology
Comparison of cytokine expression profiles in infants with a rhinovirus induced lower respiratory tract infection with or without wheezing: a comparison with respiratory syncytial virus
Da Eun Roh, Sook-Hyun Park, Hee Joung Choi, Yeo Hyang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(9):296-301.   Published online September 21, 2017
Purpose

The aim of this study was to evaluate whether infants with rhinovirus (RV) infection-induced wheezing and those with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection-induced wheezing have different cytokine profiles in the acute stage.

Methods

Of the infants with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) between September 2011 and May 2012, 88 were confirmed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and hospitalized. Systemic interferon-gamma (IFN-γ),...

Allergy
Accuracy of maximal expiratory flow-volume curve curvilinearity and fractional exhaled nitric oxide for detection of children with atopic asthma
Sang Hoo Park, Min Ji Im, Sang-Yong Eom, Youn-Soo Hahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(9):290-295.   Published online September 21, 2017
Purpose

Airway pathology in children with atopic asthma can be reflected by the concave shape of the maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve and high fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) values. We evaluated the capacity of the curvilinearity of the MEFV curve, FeNO, and their combination to distinguish subjects with atopic asthma from healthy individuals.

Methods

FeNO and angle β, which characterizes the general...

Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Application of array comparative genomic hybridization in Korean children under 6 years old with global developmental delay
Kyung Yeon Lee, Eunsim Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(9):282-289.   Published online September 21, 2017
Purpose

Recent advancements in molecular techniques have greatly contributed to the discovery of genetic causes of unexplained developmental delay. Here, we describe the results of array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the clinical features of 27 patients with global developmental delay.

Methods

We included 27 children who fulfilled the following criteria: Korean children under 6 years with global developmental delay; children who had...

Neurology
Clinical characteristics of hypertensive encephalopathy in pediatric patients
Chang Hoon Ahn, Seung-A Han, Young Hwa Kong, Sun Jun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(8):266-271.   Published online August 14, 2017
Purpose

The aim of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics of hypertensive encephalopathy according to the underlying etiologies in children.

Methods

We retrospectively evaluated 33 pediatric patients who were diagnosed as having hypertensive encephalopathy in Chonbuk National University Children's Hospital. Among the patients, 18 were excluded because of incomplete data or because brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was not performed. Finally,...

Gastroenterology
Characteristics and prognosis of hepatic cytomegalovirus infection in children: 10 years of experience at a university hospital in Korea
Chae-Yeon Min, Joo Young Song, Su Jin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(8):261-265.   Published online August 14, 2017
Purpose

Studies on cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in immunocompetent children are lacking, and minimal information is available in the medical literature on hepatic manifestations and complications of CMV. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and prognosis of children with CMV hepatitis, and to investigate its prevalence at a single medical center in Korea over a...

Infection
The impact of an educational intervention on parents' decisions to vaccinate their <60-month-old children against influenza
Aery Choi, Dong Ho Kim, Yun Kyung Kim, Byung Wook Eun, Dae Sun Jo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(8):254-260.   Published online August 14, 2017
Purpose

Seasonal influenza can be prevented by vaccination. Disease prevention in children aged <60 months is of particular importance because of the associated familial and societal burden. Considering that caretakers make the decision to vaccinate their children, the identification of drivers and barriers to vaccination is essential to increase influenza vaccination coverage.

Methods

A total of 639 parents participated in the pre- and...

Neonatology (Perinatology)
Effects of cord blood vitamin D levels on the risk of neonatal sepsis in premature infants
Birgul Say, Nurdan Uras, Suzan Sahin, Halil Degirmencioglu, Serife Suna Oguz, Fuat Emre Canpolat
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(8):248-253.   Published online August 14, 2017
Purpose

Vitamin D plays a key role in immune function. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in the pathogenesis of infections, and low levels of circulating vitamin D are strongly associated with infectious diseases. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of low vitamin D levels in cord blood on neonatal sepsis in preterm infants.

Methods

One hundred seventeen premature...

Neurology
Effects of low-dose topiramate on language function in children with migraine
Seung-A Han, Eu Jeen Yang, Younghwa Kong, Chan-Uhng Joo, Sun Jun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(7):227-231.   Published online July 31, 2017
Purpose

This study aimed to verify the safety of low-dose topiramate on language development in pediatric patients with migraine.

Methods

Thirty newly diagnosed pediatric patients with migraine who needed topiramate were enrolled and assessed twice with standard language tests, including the Test of Language Problem Solving Abilities (TOPs), Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary Test, Urimal Test of Articulation and Phonology, and computerized speech laboratory...

Infection
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli ST131 in urinary tract infections in children
Ki Wook Yun, Mi-Kyung Lee, Wonyong Kim, In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(7):221-226.   Published online July 31, 2017
Purpose

Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131, a multidrug-resistant clone causing extraintestinal infections, has rapidly become prevalent worldwide. However, the epidemiological and clinical features of pediatric infections are poorly understood. We aimed to explore the characteristics of ST131 Escherichia coli isolated from Korean children with urinary tract infections.

Methods

We examined 114 uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) isolates from children hospitalized at Chung-Ang University...

Cardiology
Relationship between vitamin D levels and intravenous immunoglobulin resistance in Kawasaki disease
Jae Sung Jun, Young Kwon Jung, Dong Won Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(7):216-220.   Published online July 31, 2017
Purpose

Vitamin D is associated with various pathological conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and cancer. We investigated the relationship between vitamin D and Kawasaki disease (KD).

Methods

We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of patients with KD between February 2013 and March 2016 in Daegu Fatima Hospital. Study participants were grouped according to vitamin D serum concentration. Group 1 included...

Association of Toll-like receptor 2-positive monocytes with coronary artery lesions and treatment nonresponse in Kawasaki disease
Soo Jung Kang, Nam Su Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(7):208-215.   Published online July 31, 2017
Purpose

Activation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) present on circulating monocytes in patients with Kawasaki disease (KD) can lead to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and interleukin-10 (IL-10). We aimed to determine the association of the frequency of circulating TLR2+/CD14+ monocytes (FTLR2%) with the outcomes of KD, as well as to compare FTLR2% to the usefulness of sIL-10.

Methods

The FTLR2% in patients...

The evolution of electrocardiographic changes in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophies
Woo Hyun Yoo, Min-Jung Cho, Peter Chun, Kwang Hun Kim, Je Sang Lee, Yong Beom Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(6):196-201.   Published online June 22, 2017
Purpose

Myocardial dysfunction and dysrhythmias are inevitable consequences of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. We aimed to evaluate specific trends of electrocardiographic changes that reflect the progress of cardiomyopathy in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Methods

Fifty electrocardiograms (ECGs) of 30 patients (ages 1 to 27 years) who had not been prescribed medications for heart failure treatment at the time of examination were retrospectively analyzed...

Neurology
Effects of lamotrigine on attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in pediatric epilepsy patients
Seung-A Han, Eu Jeen Yang, Mi-Kyoung Song, Sun Jun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(6):189-195.   Published online June 22, 2017
Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of lamotrigine for the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children with epilepsy.

Methods

Pediatric patients newly diagnosed with epilepsy (n=90 [61 boys and 29 girls]; mean age, 9.1±3.4 years) were enrolled. All patients were evaluated with the Korean ADHD rating scale (K-ARS)-IV before treatment with lamotrigine and after doses...

Neonatology (Perinatology)
Neuroprotective effects of erythropoietin against hypoxic injury via modulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and apoptosis
Ji Eun Jeong, Jae Hyun Park, Chun Soo Kim, Sang Lak Lee, Hai Lee Chung, Woo Taek Kim, Eun Joo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(6):181-188.   Published online June 22, 2017
Purpose

Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is a significant cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Erythropoietin (EPO) is emerging as a therapeutic candidate for neuroprotection. Therefore, this study was designed to determine the neuroprotective role of recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) and the possible mechanisms by which mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2), JNK, and p38 MAPK is modulated in...

Individualized ibuprofen treatment using serial B-type natriuretic peptide measurement for symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus in very preterm infants
Jeonghee Shin, Eun Hee Lee, Jee Hyun Lee, Byung Min Choi, Young Sook Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(6):175-180.   Published online June 22, 2017
Purpose

Plasma level of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), an emerging, sensitive, and specific biomarker of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), rapidly decreases in infants receiving cyclooxygenase inhibitors for ductal closure. We investigated the usefulness of serial BNP measurement as a guide for individual identification of early constrictive responses to ibuprofen in preterm infants with symptomatic PDA (sPDA).

Methods

Before March 2010, the...

General Pediatrics
Sleep problems in children and adolescents at pediatric clinics
Dong Soon Kim, Cho Long Lee, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(5):158-165.   Published online May 31, 2017
Purpose

To investigate the frequency of childhood sleep problems at pediatric clinics in Seoul and Gyeonggi provinces.

Methods

Children (n=936) and their parents who visited 5 primary and 1 secondary pediatric outpatient clinics were invited to complete a Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire.

Results

Among patients, 901 (96.3%) answered questionnaires in sufficient detail for evaluation. The participant's mean age was 4.35±3.02 years (range, 0–18 years). The male...

Pulmonology
Prevalence and clinical manifestations of macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in Korean children
Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Soo-Jong Hong, Jina Lee, Heungsup Sung, Jinho Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(5):151-157.   Published online May 31, 2017
Purpose

Macrolide resistance rate of Mycoplasma pneumoniae has rapidly increased in children. Studies on the clinical features between macrolide susceptible-M. pneumoniae (MSMP) and macrolide resistant-M. pneumoniae (MRMP) are lacking. The aim of this study was to identify the macrolide resistance rate of M. pneumoniae in Korean children with M. pneumoniae penupmonia in 2015 and compare manifestations between MSMP and MRMP.

Methods

Among 122...

Allergy
Clostridium difficile colonization and/or infection during infancy and the risk of childhood allergic diseases
Sun Hwa Lee, Yun Na Gong, Eell Ryoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(5):145-150.   Published online May 31, 2017
Purpose

The gut microbiota can influence several diseases through immune modulation; however, the exact role of microbes such as Clostridium difficileand the relationship between microbiota colonization and allergic diseases are not well known. This study aimed to determine the relationship between C. difficilecolonization and/or infection (CDCI) during infancy and allergic diseases during early childhood.

Methods

Infants 1–12 months of age presenting changes in...

Neonatology (Perinatology)
Healthcare access challenges facing six African refugee mothers in South Korea: a qualitative multiple-case study
Min Sun Kim, In Gyu Song, Ah Reum An, Kyae Hyung Kim, Ji Hoon Sohn, Sei Won Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(5):138-144.   Published online May 31, 2017
Purpose

Following legal reform in 2013, the annual number of asylum seekers entering South Korea has increased from 1,143 in 2012 to 5,711 in 2015. We interviewed six African refugee mothers of young children regarding their health needs and barriers to access maternal child health services.

Methods

We recruited mothers who had visited a clinic for immigrants between July 2013 and August 2015....

Infection
Effects of clarithromycin treatment in scrub typhus in children: comparison with chloramphenicol and azithromycin
Min Lee, June Kim, Dae Sun Jo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(4):124-127.   Published online April 25, 2017
Purpose

Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are not recommended for treating scrub typhus in pediatric patients because of potential side effects, such as aplastic anemia or tooth discoloration. While clarithromycin has recently been used in adults, few reports have been published on its effects in pediatric patients. We report the clinical profiles of pediatric scrub typhus and the effects of clarithromycin on scrub...

Nutrition
Effect of tuberculosis treatment on leptin levels, weight gain, and percentage body fat in Indonesian children
Maria Mexitalia, Yesi Oktavia Dewi, Adriyan Pramono, Mohammad Syarofil Anam
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(4):118-123.   Published online April 25, 2017
Purpose

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a problem in the community. TB patients usually experience malnutrition, which is characterized by both decreased body weight (BW) and body fat percentage (BFP). Leptin, an important regulator of BW, also plays an important role in cellular immunity, which is integral to defense against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We analyzed the effect of an anti-TB treatment regimen on...

Cardiology
Clinical usefulness of serum procalcitonin level in distinguishing between Kawasaki disease and other infections in febrile children
Na Hyun Lee, Hee Joung Choi, Yeo Hyang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(4):112-117.   Published online April 25, 2017
Purpose

The aims of this study were to compare serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels between febrile children with Kawasaki disease (KD) and those with bacterial or viral infections, and assess the clinical usefulness of PCT level in predicting KD.

Methods

Serum PCT levels were examined in febrile pediatric patients admitted between August 2013 and August 2014. The patients were divided into 3 groups as...

Genetics and Metabolism
Neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Hasan M. Isa, Masooma S. Mohamed, Afaf M. Mohamed, Adel Abdulla, Fuad Abdulla
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(4):106-111.   Published online April 25, 2017
Purpose

This study aimed to determine the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency among infants with neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia (NIH); compare G6PD-deficient and G6PD-normal patients regarding hyperbilirubinemia and need for exchange transfusions (ET); and assess risk factors for ET and kernicterus.

Methods

This is a case-control retrospective study. Medical records of NIH patients admitted to the Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, Bahrain, between...

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