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Case Report
New daily persistent headache with isolated sphenoiditis in children
Jeongho Lee, Minhee Rhee, Eun Sook Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(2):73-76.   Published online February 28, 2015

Isolated sphenoid sinusitis is a rare disease in children, and its symptoms are often nonspecific and confusing. Rarely, severe headache can be the first or only symptom of isolated sphenoid sinusitis. New daily persistent headache (NDPH) is a form of chronic daily headache that may have features of both migraines and tension-type headaches. NDPH is difficult to diagnose and requires...

Development of multifocal nodular lesions of a liver mimicking hepatic metastasis, following resection of an insulinoma in a child
Sook Young Jung, Ben Kang, Yoon Mee Choi, Jun Mee Kim, Soon Ki Kim, Young Se Kwon, Ji Eun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(2):69-72.   Published online February 28, 2015

Insulinoma, which arises from insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, is a rare tumor in children. Only 5%-10% of insulinomas are malignant and undergo metastasis. We report a case of an 11-year-old girl who experienced hypoglycemia-related seizures induced by an insulinoma; after resection of the primary tumor, she developed hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Laboratory test results indicated marked hypoglycemia with hyperinsulinemia....

A rare type of single coronary artery with right coronary artery originating from the left circumflex artery in a child
Jong Min Kim, Ok Jeong Lee, I-Seok Kang, June Huh, Jinyoung Song, Geena Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(1):37-40.   Published online January 31, 2015

The presence of a single coronary artery is a rare congenital anomaly; such patients often present with severe myocardial ischemia. We experienced the case of a 13-year-old girl with the right coronary artery originating from the left circumflex artery. She visited our Emergency Department owing to severe chest pain; her cardiac enzyme levels were elevated, but her initial electrocardiogram (ECG)...

Neonatal invasive Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus infection with delayed central nervous system complications
Jung-Weon Park, So-Hee Eun, Eui-Chong Kim, Moon-Woo Seong, Yun-Kyung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(1):33-36.   Published online January 31, 2015

Group D streptococci are known to cause newborn septicemia and meningitis, but the Streptococcus bovis group strains rarely cause serious neonatal infections in Korea. Central nervous system (CNS) complications of neonatal S. bovis group infection have rarely been reported. In adults, S. bovis group strains cause bacteremia and endocarditis, and are associated with gastrointestinal malignancy. However, only a few studies...

A pediatric case of Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis
Ju Yi Park, Kyong Og Ko, Jae Woo Lim, Eun Jung Cheon, Jung Min Yoon, Hyo Jeong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(12):542-545.   Published online December 31, 2014

Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis is characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and disturbance of consciousness. It is similar to Miller Fisher syndrome, a variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome, in that they share features such as ophthalmoplegia and ataxia. The difference is that patients with Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis have impaired consciousness, whereas patients with Miller Fisher syndrome have alert consciousness and areflexia. Here, we report...

Necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to varicella in a healthy child
Byung Ok Kwak, Min Jung Lee, Hye Won Park, Min Kyung Song, Sochung Chung, Kyo Sun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(12):538-541.   Published online December 31, 2014

Varicella is usually considered to be a benign disease in healthy children; however, serious complications can occur such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. We describe a 38-month-old girl with necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome following varicella. She was previously healthy and vaccinated against varicella at 12 months of age. She had been diagnosed with varicella three...

Multifocal kaposiform hemangioendothelioma of soft tissue with bilateral pulmonary involvement in an adolescent
Roxana Azma, Samin Alavi, Maliheh Khoddami, Mohammad Taghi Arzanian, Armin Nourmohammad, Sadaf Esteghamati
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(11):500-504.   Published online November 30, 2014

Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a rare, locally aggressive vascular tumor of intermediate malignancy with resemblance to Kaposi sarcoma. It occurs predominantly in pediatric age groups as a cutaneous lesion with focal infiltration into the adjacent soft tissue and bone. Although visceral involvement is very uncommon, several cases with bone, retroperitoneal, or mediastinal involvement have been described. KHE has been reported...

Wernicke's encephalopathy in a child with high dose thiamine therapy
So Won Park, Yoon Young Yi, Jung Woo Han, Heung Dong Kim, Joon Soo Lee, Hoon-Chul Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(11):496-499.   Published online November 30, 2014

Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute neurological disorder characterized by mental confusion, oculomotor dysfunction, and ataxia. It has been reported in individuals with alcohol dependence, hyperemesis gravidarum, and prolonged parenteral nutrition without vitamin supplementation. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old male patient with neuroblastoma and a history of poor oral intake and nausea for 3 months. After admission, he...

Inhaled iloprost for the treatment of patient with Fontan circulation
Yong Hyun Kim, Moon Hee Chae, Deok Young Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(10):461-463.   Published online October 31, 2014

Decreased exercise capacity after Fontan surgery is relatively common and the failure of the Fontan state gradually increases with age. However, there is no further treatment for patients with Fontan circulation. Pulmonary vasodilation therapy is an effective method to solve this problem because pulmonary vascular resistance is a major factor of the Fontan problem. Inhaled iloprost is a chemically stable...

Overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome and Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis associated with Epstein Barr virus
Young Il Rho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(10):457-460.   Published online October 31, 2014

A flaccid tetraparesis in Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is presumed to be a sign of overlapping Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). In addition, BBE and Fisher syndrome, which are clinically similar and are both associated with the presence of the immunoglobulin G anti-GQ1b antibody, represent a specific autoimmune disease with a wide spectrum of symptoms that include ophthalmoplegia and ataxia. A 2-year-old...

Chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection causing both benign and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders
Yoojin Kwun, Soo-Jong Hong, Jin Seong Lee, Da Hye Son, Jong Jin Seo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(9):420-424.   Published online September 30, 2014

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is oncogenic and can transform B cells from a benign to a malignant phenotype. EBV infection is also associated with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (LIP). Here, we report the case of a 14-year-old boy who was diagnosed with a latent EBV infection and underlying LIP, without any associated immunodeficiency. He had been EBV-seropositive for 8 years. The...

A Korean boy with atypical X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy confirmed by an unpublished mutation of ABCD1
Hye Jeong Jwa, Keon Su Lee, Gu Hwan Kim, Han Wook Yoo, Han Hyuk Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(9):416-419.   Published online September 30, 2014

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is a rare peroxisomal disorder, that is rapidly progressive, neurodegenerative, and recessive, and characteristically primary affects the central nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. X-ALD is diagnosed basaed on clinical, radiological, and serological parameters, including elevated plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), such as C24:0 and C26:0, and high C24:0/C22:0 and C26:0/C22:0...

A pediatric case of Brugada syndrome diagnosed by fever-provoked ventricular tachycardia
Geena Kim, Ye-Chan Kyung, I-Seok Kang, Jinyoung Song, June Huh, Young Keun On
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(8):374-378.   Published online August 25, 2014

Brugada syndrome is a rare channelopathy associated with the SCN5A gene that causes fatal ventricular arrhythmias. This case of Brugada syndrome, in which ventricular tachycardia (VT) was provoked by high fever, is the first report in a Korean child. The boy had retinoblastoma of his left eye diagnosed at 16 months of age. After chemotherapy, he contracted a catheter-related infection...

Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in a disseminated varicella infection in an immunocompromised child
Jae Hong Kim, Dae Hyun Kwon, E Young Bae, Seung Beom Han, Jae Wook Lee, Nack Gyun Chung, Dae Chul Jeong, Bin Cho, Jin Han Kang, Hack Ki Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(8):370-373.   Published online August 25, 2014

Varicella-zoster virus infection can lead to severe illness in immunocompromised patients. Further the mortality rate of disseminated varicella infection is extremely high particularly in immunocompromised children. We report a case of disseminated varicella infection in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who was receiving chemotherapy, but was initially admitted with only for acute abdominal pain. The patient rapidly developed severe...

Atypical teratoid rhabdoid brain tumor in an infant with ring chromosome 22
Eun Hae Cho, Jae Bok Park, Jin Kyung Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2014;57(7):333-336.   Published online July 23, 2014

Reports of constitutional ring chromosome 22, r(22) are rare. Individuals with r(22) present similar features as those with the 22q13 deletion syndrome. The instability in the ring chromosome contributes to the development of variable phenotypes. Central nervous system (CNS) atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ATRTs) are rare, highly malignant tumors, primarily occurring in young children below 3 years of age. The...

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