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Cardiology
Outcome of neonatal palliative procedure for pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect or tetralogy of Fallot with severe pulmonary stenosis: experience in a single tertiary center
Tae Kyoung Jo, Hyo Rim Suh, Bo Geum Choi, Jung Eun Kwon, Hanna Jung, Young Ok Lee, Joon Yong Cho, Yeo Hyang Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(7):210-216.   Published online July 15, 2018

Purpose: The present study aimed to evaluate progression and prognosis according to the palliation method used in neonates and early infants aged 3 months or younger who were diagnosed with pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA VSD) or tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) with severe pulmonary stenosis (PS) in a single tertiary hospital over a period of 12 years. Methods: Twenty...
Neurology
Outcome of ultrasonographic imaging in infants with sacral dimple
Jin Hyuk Choi, Taekwan Lee, Hyeok Hee Kwon, Sun Kyoung You, Joon Won Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(6):194-199.   Published online June 25, 2018
Purpose

Sacral dimples are a common cutaneous anomaly in infants. Spine ultrasonography (USG) is an effective and safe screening tool for patients with a sacral dimple. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical manifestations in patients with an isolated sacral dimple and to review the management of spinal cord abnormalities identified with USG.

Methods

We reviewed clinical records and collected...

Cardiology
The outcome of percutaneous stent implantation in congenital heart disease: experience of a single institute
Moon Sun Kim, Ja Kyoung Yoon, Seong Ho Kim, Ji Seok Bang, So Ick Jang, Sang Yoon Lee, Eun Young Choi, Su Jin Park, Hye Won Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(6):187-193.   Published online June 25, 2018
Purpose

The efficacy of percutaneous stent implantation for congenital heart disease (CHD) in Korea, where stent availability is limited, has not been determined. This study evaluated the acute and midterm results of stent implantation in different CHD subgroups.

Methods

Stents were implanted in 75 patients with 81 lesions: (1) pulmonary artery stenosis (PAS) group, 56 lesions in 51 patients; (2) coarctation of the...

Infection
Clinical and laboratory profiles of hospitalized children with acute respiratory virus infection
Eunjin Choi, Kee-Soo Ha, Dae Jin Song, Jung Hwa Lee, Kwang Chul Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(6):180-186.   Published online June 25, 2018
Purpose

Despite the availability of molecular methods, identification of the causative virus in children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has proven difficult as the same viruses are often detected in asymptomatic children.

Methods

Multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to detect 15 common respiratory viruses in children under 15 years of age who were hospitalized with ARI between January 2013...

Cardiology
Differentiation between incomplete Kawasaki disease and secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis following Kawasaki disease using N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide
Jung Eun Choi, Yujin Kwak, Jung Won Huh, Eun-Sun Yoo, Kyung-Ha Ryu, Sejung Sohn, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(5):167-173.   Published online May 28, 2018
Purpose

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome with many causes, including Kawasaki disease (KD). The purpose of this study was to identify the laboratory tests needed to easily differentiate KD with HLH from incomplete KD alone.

Methods

We performed a retrospective study on patients diagnosed with incomplete KD and incomplete KD with HLH (HLH-KD) between January 2012 and March 2015. We compared...

Clinical implications in laboratory parameter values in acute Kawasaki disease for early diagnosis and proper treatment
Yu-Mi Seo, Hyun-Mi Kang, Sung-Churl Lee, Jae-Won Yu, Hong-Ryang Kil, Jung-Woo Rhim, Ji-Whan Han, Kyung-Yil Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(5):160-166.   Published online May 28, 2018
Purpose

This study aimed to analyse laboratory values according to fever duration, and evaluate the relationship across these values during the acute phase of Kawasaki disease (KD) to aid in the early diagnosis for early-presenting KD and incomplete KD patients.

Methods

Clinical and laboratory data of patients with KD (n=615) were evaluated according to duration of fever at presentation, and were compared between...

Neonatology (Perinatology)
Diagnostic and prognostic value of proadrenomedullin in neonatal sepsis
Sameh Samir Fahmey, Heba Mostafa, Noha Abd Elhafeez, Heba Hussain
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(5):156-159.   Published online May 28, 2018
Purpose

Sepsis is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Early diagnosis is a major problem because of the lack of specific clinical signs. Therefore, a reliable diagnostic marker is needed to guide the use of antimicrobial agents. The objective of our study was to assess the value of proadrenomedullin (pro-ADM) in establishing the diagnosis and evaluating the prognosis of...

Neurology
Long-term prenatal stress increases susceptibility of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid-induced spasms in infant rats
Hyeok Hee Kwon, Taekwan Lee, Jinpyo Hong, Dong Woon Kim, Joon Won Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(5):150-155.   Published online May 28, 2018
Purpose

Infantile spasms, also known as West syndrome, is an age-specific epileptic seizure. Most patients with this condition also exhibit delayed development. This study aimed to determine the effect of long-term prenatal stress on susceptibility to infantile spasms.

Methods

We subjected pregnant rats to acute or chronic immobilization stress. Resulting offspring received N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) on postnatal day 15, and their...

Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Hypercalciuria and febrile convulsion in children under 5 years old
Vahid Seddighi Gorabi, Bahram Nikkhoo, Obeidollah Faraji, Mona Mohammadkhani, Sattar Mirzaee, Mohammad Aziz Rasouli, Abdorrahim Afkhamzadeh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(4):129-131.   Published online April 23, 2018
Purpose

The association between hypercalciuria and febrile convulsion is controversial. The present study aimed to investigate the statistical association between hypercalciuria and childhood febrile convulsions.

Methods

Overall, 160 children aged 6 months to 5 years, including 80 children with febrile convulsion and 80 febrile children without convulsion (comparison group), were recruited. All laboratory tests, including 24-hour urine calcium, were undertaken in an academic...

Endocrinology
The association of total blood mercury levels and overweight among Korean adolescents: analysis of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010–2013
Yi-Yeon Shin, In-Kyung Ryu, Mi-Jung Park, Shin-Hye Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(4):121-128.   Published online April 23, 2018
Purpose

Obesity has been associated with higher total blood mercury levels, based on animal studies; however, studies that focus on children and adolescents are lacking. We aimed to assess the association between total blood mercury levels and the incidence of overweight and abdominal obesity in Korean adolescents.

Methods

The study population comprised 1,567 adolescents (793 boys and 774 girls; aged 10–19 years), who...

Neonatology (Perinatology)
TORCH (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus) screening of small for gestational age and intrauterine growth restricted neonates: efficacy study in a single institute in Korea
Mi Hae Chung, Chan Ok Shin, Juyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(4):114-120.   Published online April 23, 2018
Purpose

Routine screening for toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus (TORCH) in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small for gestational age (SGA) neonates has become a common practice. However, the incidence of TORCH varies across countries, and the cost of TORCH testing may be disadvantageous compared to disease-specific screening. To evaluate the efficacy of TORCH screening, the medical charts...

General Pediatrics
Sudden unexpected cardio-respiratory arrest after venipuncture in children
Goun Jeong, Son Moon Shin, Nam Su Kim, Young Min Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(4):108-113.   Published online April 23, 2018
Purpose

This study aimed to investigate the clinical and socioenvironmental characteristics of sudden cardiorespiratory arrest after venipuncture in children.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective email-based survey of all members of the Korean Pediatric Society. The questionnaire included items on patient demographics, socioenvironmental circumstances of the venipuncture, type of cardiorespiratory arrest, symptoms and signs, treatment, prognosis, and presumed cause of the arrest.

Results

Fourteen patients were...

Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Acute kidney injury in pediatric patients with rhabdomyolysis
Young Shin Lim, Heeyeon Cho, Sang Taek Lee, Yeonhee Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):95-100.   Published online March 19, 2018
Purpose

This study aimed to evaluate the clinical findings in pediatric rhabdomyolysis and the predictive factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) in Korean children.

Methods

Medical records of 39 Korean children, who were newly diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis from January 2008 to December 2015, were retrospectively analyzed. The diagnosis was made from the medical history, elevated serum creatinine kinase level >1,000 IU/L, and plasma...

Infection
Association between vitamin D and urinary tract infection in children
Abolfazl Mahyar, Parviz Ayazi, Sara Safari, Reza Dalirani, Amir Javadi, Shiva Esmaeily
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):90-94.   Published online March 19, 2018
Purpose

The present study aimed to determine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children.

Methods

In this case-control study, 70 children with UTI (case group) were compared with 70 healthy children (control group) in terms of serum 25(OH)D levels. The children were between 1 month and 12 years of age. Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured...

Gastroenterology
Clinical manifestation of Campylobacter enteritis in children
Joon Yeol Bae, Dong Hyuk Lee, Kyung Ok Ko, Jae Woo Lim, Eun Jeong Cheon, Young Hwa Song, Jung Min Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):84-89.   Published online February 28, 2018
Purpose

Timely antibiotic therapy in selected cases of diarrhea associated with bacterial infections can reduce the duration and severity of illness and prevent complications. The availability of a predictive index before identification of causative bacteria would aid in the choice of a therapeutic agent.

Methods

The study included patients admitted to the pediatrics unit at Konyang University Hospital for acute inflammatory diarrhea from...

Neonatology (Perinatology)
Augmentation of respiratory muscle activities in preterm infants with feeding desaturation
Dong Rak Kwon, Gi Young Park, Ji Eun Jeong, Woo Taek Kim, Eun Joo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):78-83.   Published online March 19, 2018
Purpose

Frequent desaturation due to immature incoordination of suck-swallow-breathing in preterm infants can influence multiple organs such as the heart, lungs, and brain, which can then affect growth and development. Most notably in preterm infants, feeding desaturation may even affect pulmonary function during gavage feeding. Because respiratory muscle activities may reflect the work required during respiration, we evaluated the differences in...

Comparison of postnatal catch-up growth according to definitions of small for gestational age infants
Jisun Huh, Ji Yoon Kwon, Hye Ryun Kim, Eun Hee Lee, Young-Jun Rhie, Byung Min Choi, Kee-Hyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(3):71-77.   Published online March 19, 2018
Purpose

Small for gestational age (SGA) is confusingly defined as birth weight (BW) either below 3rd percentile or 10th percentile for infants. This study aimed to compare postnatal catch-up growth between SGA groups according to different definitions.

Methods

Data of 129 infants born with BW below the 10th percentile and admitted to Korea University Anam Hospital and Ansan Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Height...

Cardiology
Cardiac function associated with home ventilator care in Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Sangheun Lee, Heeyoung Lee, Lucy Youngmin Eun, Seung Woong Gang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(2):59-63.   Published online February 28, 2018
Purpose

Cardiomyopathy is becoming the leading cause of death in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy because mechanically assisted lung ventilation and assisted coughing have helped resolve respiratory complications. To clarify cardiopulmonary function, we compared cardiac function between the home ventilator-assisted and non-ventilator-assisted groups.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy from January 2010 to March 2016 at Gangnam Severance Hospital. Demographic...

Oncology
Excellent treatment outcomes in children younger than 18 months with stage 4 MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma
Chiwoo Kim, Young Bae Choi, Ji Won Lee, Keon Hee Yoo, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(2):53-58.   Published online February 28, 2018
Purpose

Although the prognosis is generally good in patients with intermediate-risk neuroblastoma, no consensus has been reached on the ideal treatment regimen. This study analyzed treatment outcomes and toxicities in patients younger than 18 months with stage 4 MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients younger than 18 months newly diagnosed with stage 4 MYCN nonamplified neuroblastoma between January 2009 and...

Infection
Treatment-failure tularemia in children
Arzu Karlı, Gülnar Şensoy, Şule Paksu, Muhammet Furkan Korkmaz, Ömer Ertuğrul, Rıfat Karlı
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(2):49-52.   Published online February 28, 2018
Purpose

Tularemia is an infection caused by Francisella tularensis. Its diagnosis and treatment may be difficult in many cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate treatment modalities for pediatric tularemia patients who do not respond to medical treatment.

Methods

A single-center, retrospective study was performed. A total of 19 children with oropharyngeal tularemia were included.

Results

Before diagnosis, the duration of symptoms in...

Cardiology
Discrimination of Kawasaki disease with concomitant adenoviral detection differentiating from isolated adenoviral infection
Jong Han Kim, Hye Ree Kang, Su Yeong Kim, Ji-Eun Ban
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(2):43-48.   Published online February 28, 2018
Purpose

Human adenovirus infection mimics Kawasaki disease (KD) but can be detected in KD patients. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical differences between KD with adenovirus infection and only adenoviral infection and to identify biomarkers for prediction of adenovirus-positive KD from isolated adenoviral infection.

Methods

A total of 147 patients with isolated adenovirus were identified by quantitative polymerase chain...

Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Diagnostic accuracy of urinary biomarkers in infants younger than 3 months with urinary tract infection
Nani Jung, Hye Jin Byun, Jae Hyun Park, Joon Sik Kim, Hae Won Kim, Ji Yong Ha
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(1):24-29.   Published online January 22, 2018
Purpose

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of urinary biomarkers, such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and β-2 microglobulin (uB2MG), in early detection of urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants aged <3 months with fever.

Methods

A total of 422 infants aged <3 months (male:female=267:155; mean age, 56.4 days), who were admitted for fever, were retrospectively included in...

Is vaginal reflux associated with urinary tract infection in female children under the age of 36 months?
Yu Bin Kim, Chih Lung Tang, Ja Wook Koo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(1):17-23.   Published online January 22, 2018
Purpose

To determine the relationship between vaginal reflux (VR) and urinary tract infection (UTI) in female children aged <36 months.

Methods

A single center retrospective study was performed for 191 girls aged <36 months, with a diagnosis of febrile UTI, who underwent a voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) for assessment of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) at Sanggye Paik Hospital. Fifty-one girls, who underwent VCUG for assessment...

Cardiology
C-reactive protein and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide discrepancy: a differentiation of adenoviral pharyngoconjunctival fever from Kawasaki disease
Jung Eun Choi, Hee Won Kang, Young Mi Hong, Sejung Sohn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(1):12-16.   Published online January 22, 2018
Purpose

To differentiate adenoviral pharyngoconjunctival fever (PCF) from acute Kawasaki disease (KD) using laboratory tests before results of virus-real time polymerase chain reaction and ophthalmologic examination are obtained.

Methods

Baseline patient characteristics and laboratory measurements were compared between 40 patients with adenovirus infection and 123 patients with KD.

Results

The patients with adenovirus infection were generally older than those with KD (median: 3.9 years vs....

Developmental and Behavioral Medicine
Mid-upper-arm circumference as a screening measure for identifying children with elevated body mass index: a study for Pakistan
Muhammad Asif, Muhammad Aslam, Saima Altaf
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(1):6-11.   Published online January 22, 2018
Purpose

Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) is considered an alternative screening method for obesity. The aims of this investigation were to examine the ability of MUAC to correctly identify children with elevated body mass index (BMI) and to determine the best MUAC cutoff point for identification of children with high BMI.

Methods

Anthropometric measurements (height, weight, and MUAC) from a cross-sectional sample of 7,921 Pakistani...

Endocrinology
The effect of low-dose intravenous bisphosphonate treatment on osteoporosis in children with quadriplegic cerebral palsy
Soon Jeong Moon, Young Min An, Soon Ki Kim, Young Se Kwon, Ji Eun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):403-407.   Published online December 22, 2017
Purpose

Quadriplegic children with cerebral palsy are more susceptible to osteoporosis because of various risk factors that interfere with bone metabolism. Pamidronate is effective for pediatric osteoporosis, but there are no guidelines for optimal dosage or duration of treatment in quadriplegic children with osteoporosis. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-dose pamidronate treatment in these patients.

Methods

Ten quadriplegic patients on antiepileptic...

The influence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists on anthropometric change in girls with central precocious puberty
Jong Wan Yoon, Hyun A Park, Jieun Lee, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):395-402.   Published online December 22, 2017
Purpose

The potential effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) treatment on the weight of girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) remains a controversy. We investigated anthropometric changes during and after GnRHa treatment among girls with CPP.

Methods

This retrospective study evaluated data from 127 girls with CPP who received GnRHa treatment for ≥2 years. Height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) values were...

Cardiology
Radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia in children and adolescents: a single center experience
Myung Chul Hyun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):390-394.   Published online December 22, 2017
Purpose

Atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) is less common in pediatric patients than in adult patients. Thus, data for pediatric AVNRT patients are insufficient. Hence, we aimed to analyze the patient characteristics, treatment, and any recurrences in pediatric AVNRT patients.

Methods

We reviewed the records of 50 pediatric AVNRT patients who had undergone radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) between January 1998 and December 2016...

Neonatology (Perinatology)
Does anaesthesia in mothers during delivery affect bilirubin levels in their neonates?
Zeinab A El-Kabbany, Nadin N Toaima, Tamer N Toaima, Mona Y Gamal EL-Din
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(12):385-389.   Published online December 22, 2017
Purpose

This study aimed to assess whether different anesthetic techniques and oxytocin use applied during delivery affect transcutaneous bilirubin levels during the first 24 hours in neonates.

Methods

A total of 1,044 neonates delivered by either caesarian section (C/S) or normal vaginal delivery (NVD) were included in the study. They were classified into 5 groups as follows: group 1: born by C/S using...

Cardiology
A comparative study of established z score models for coronary artery diameters in 181 healthy Korean children
Kyungguk Ryu, Jeong Jin Yu, Hyun Ok Jun, Eun Jung Shin, Young Hee Heo, Jae Suk Baek, Young-Hwue Kim, Jae-Kon Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2017;60(11):373-378.   Published online November 27, 2017
Purpose

The aim of this study was to investigate the statistical properties of four previously developed pediatric coronary artery z score models in healthy Korean children.

Methods

The study subjects were 181 healthy Korean children, whose age ranged from 1 month to 15 years. The diameter of each coronary artery was measured using 2-dimensional echocardiography and converted to the z score in the...

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