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Review Article
Infection
Epidemiology and clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 in children
Soo-Han Choi, Han Wool Kim, Ji-Man Kang, Dong Hyun Kim, Eun Young Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):125-132.   Published online April 6, 2020
Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which started in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and declared a worldwide pandemic on March 11, 2020, is a novel infectious disease that causes respiratory illness and death. Pediatric COVID-19 accounts for a small percentage of patients and is often milder than that in adults; however, it can progress to severe disease in some cases. Even neonates...
Epidemiology, virology, and clinical features of severe acute respiratory syndrome -coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2; Coronavirus Disease-19)
Su Eun Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(4):119-124.   Published online April 2, 2020
A cluster of severe pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City, Hubei province in China emerged in December 2019. A novel coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was isolated from lower respiratory tract sample as the causative agent. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the World Health Organization (WHO). COVID-19...
Neurology
Advanced neuroimaging techniques for evaluating pediatric epilepsy
Yun Jeong Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):88-95.   Published online February 6, 2020
Accurate localization of the seizure onset zone is important for better seizure outcomes and preventing deficits following epilepsy surgery. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques have increased our understanding of the underlying etiology and improved our ability to noninvasively identify the seizure onset zone. Using epilepsy-specific magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols, structural MRI allows better detection of the seizure onset zone,...
Hematology
Genetic classification and confirmation of inherited platelet disorders: current status in Korea
Ye Jee Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(3):79-87.   Published online February 6, 2020
Inherited platelet disorders (IPDs), which manifest as primary hemostasis defects, often underlie abnormal bleeding and a family history of thrombocytopenia, bone marrow failure, hematologic malignancies, undefined mucocutaneous bleeding disorder, or congenital bony defects. Wide heterogeneity in IPD types with regard to the presence or absence of thrombocytopenia, platelet dysfunction, bone marrow failure, and dysmegakaryopoiesis is observed in patients. The individual...
Pulmonology
High-flow nasal cannula oxygen therapy in children: a clinical review
Ji-Won Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2020;63(1):3-7.   Published online October 28, 2019
High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a relatively safe and effective noninvasive ventilation method that was recently accepted as a treatment option for acute respiratory support before endotracheal intubation or invasive ventilation. The action mechanism of HFNC includes a decrease in nasopharyngeal resistance, washout of dead space, reduction in inflow of ambient air, and an increase in airway pressure. In preterm...
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Reconsideration of urine culture for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis in children: a new challenging method for diagnosing acute pyelonephritis
Jun Ho Lee, Seonkyeong Rhie
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(12):433-437.   Published online October 18, 2019
Acute pyelonephritis (APN) should be detected and treated as soon as possible to reduce the risk of the development of acquired renal scarring. However, in the medical field, urine culture results are not available or considered when the prompt discrimination of APN is necessary and empirical treatment is started. Furthermore, urine culture cannot discriminate APN among children with febrile urinary...
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia: how can we improve its outcomes?
Tae-Jung Sung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(10):367-373.   Published online May 17, 2019
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease of preterm infants with multiple factors affected from prenatal to postnatal periods. Despite significant advances in neonatal care over almost 50 years, BPD rates have not decreased; in fact, they may have even increased. Since more preterm infants, even at periviable gestational age, survive today, different stages of lung development affect the...
Cardiology
Understanding the importance of cerebrovascular involvement in Kawasaki disease
Jung Sook Yeom, Jae Young Cho, Hyang-Ok Woo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(9):334-339.   Published online May 16, 2019
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis in infants and young children. However, its natural history has not been fully elucidated because the first case was reported in the late 1960s and patients who have recovered are just now entering middle age. Nevertheless, much evidence has raised concerns regarding the subclinical vascular changes that occur in post-KD patients. KD research...
Allergy
Phenotypes of allergic diseases in children and their application in clinical situations
Eun Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(9):325-333.   Published online April 23, 2019
Allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis, are common heterogeneous diseases that encompass diverse phenotypes and different pathogeneses. Phenotype studies of allergic diseases can facilitate the identification of risk factors and their underlying pathophysiology, resulting in the application of more effective treatment, selection of better treatment responses, and prediction of prognosis for each phenotype. In the early phase...
Cardiology
Reality of Kawasaki disease epidemiology
Gi Beom Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):292-296.   Published online July 9, 2019
Epidemiologic studies of Kawasaki disease (KD) have shown a new pattern or change of its occurrence suggestive of its pathophysiology or risk factors from the first patient with KD reported in 1961. The incidence of KD in Northeast Asian countries including Japan, South Korea, China, and Taiwan is 10–30 times higher than that in the United States and Europe. Knowing...
Gastroenterology
The role of fecal calprotectin in pediatric disease
Su Jin Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(8):287-291.   Published online March 28, 2019
Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a calcium- and zinc-binding protein of the S100 family, mainly expressed by neutrophils and released during inflammation. FC became an increasingly useful tool both for gastroenterologists and for general practitioners for distinguishing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from irritable bowel syndrome. Increasing evidences support the use of this biomarker for diagnosis, follow-up and evaluation of response to...
Recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents: Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society, 2018
Eun Hwa Choi, Su Eun Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Dae Sun Jo, Yun-Kyung Kim, Byung-Wook Eun, Taek-Jin Lee, Jina Lee, Hyunju Lee, Ki Hwan Kim, Hye-Kyung Cho, Eun Young Cho, Jong-Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(7):252-256.   Published online July 15, 2019
The Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society recommended immunization schedule for children and adolescents aged 18 years or younger in the 9th (2018) edition of Immunization guideline. This report provides the revised recommendations made by the committee and summarizes several changes from the 2015 guideline. National immunization program (NIP) launched a human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization for girls...
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Practice for preterm patent ductus arteriosus; focusing on the hemodynamic significance and the impact on the neonatal outcomes
Jin A Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(7):245-251.   Published online April 8, 2019
Hemodynamically significant preterm patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) affects mortality; comorbidities such as necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia; and adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, particularly in very low birth weight infants. However, recent studies have indicated that there is no consensus on the causal relationship between PDA and neonatal outcomes, the benefit of PDA treatment, the factors...
Endocrinology
Prevalence of obesity and overweight in Iranian children aged less than 5 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis
kamyar mansori, Sorour Khateri, Yousef Moradi, Zaher Khazaei, Hossein Mirzaei, Shiva Mansouri Hanis, Mehran Asadi Aliabadi, Mehdi Ranjbaran, Fatemeh Varse, Serveh Parang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(6):206-212.   Published online April 23, 2019

Purpose: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of childhood obesity and overweight in Iranian children under 5 years of age using a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, CINHAL, and the Iranian databases, including Scientific Information Database (www.sid.ir), Iranian Research Institute for Information Science and Technology (Irandoc.ac.ir), Iranmedex (www.iranmedex.com), and...
Pulmonology
Benefits and risks of therapeutic alternatives for macrolide resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children
Hyeon-Jong Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(6):199-205.   Published online March 15, 2019
Although Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has been generally susceptible to macrolides, the emergence of macrolide-resistant MPP (MRMP) has made its treatment challenging. MRMP rapidly spread after the 2000s, especially in East Asia. MRMP is more common in children and adolescents than in adults, which is likely related to the frequent use of macrolides for treating M. pneumoniae infections in children....
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Surfactant preparations for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome: past, present, and future
Ga Won Jeon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):155-161.   Published online February 8, 2019
Following the first successful trial of surfactant replacement therapy for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) by Fujiwara in 1980, several animal-derived natural surfactants and synthetic surfactants have been developed. Synthetic surfactants were designed to overcome limitations of natural surfactants such as cost, immune reactions, and infections elicited by animal proteins contained in natural surfactants. However, first-generation synthetic surfactants...
Nutrition
A perspective on partially hydrolyzed protein infant formula in nonexclusively breastfed infants
Yvan Vandenplas, Zakiudin Munasir, Badriul Hegar, Dewi Kumarawati, Ahmad Suryawan, Muzal Kadim, Julistio Tb Djais, Ray Wagiu Basrowi, Deni Krisnamurti
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(5):149-154.   Published online January 14, 2019
The World Health Organization recommends that infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life to provide optimal nutrition in this critical period of life. After this, infants should receive nutritionally adequate and safe complementary foods while breastfeeding continues for up to 2 years of age or beyond. For nonbreastfed infants, infant formula is an available option...
Predictors and management of intravenous immunoglobulin-resistant Kawasaki disease
Min Seob Song
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(4):119-123.   Published online March 15, 2019
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a systemic vasculitis that mainly affects younger children. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistant cases are at increasing risk for coronary artery complications. The strategy on prediction of potential nonresponders and treatment of IVIG-resistant patients is now controversial. In this review the definition and predictors of IVIG-resistant KD and current evidence to guide management are discussed.
Trends in the use of antibiotics among Korean children
Young June Choe, Ju-Young Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(4):113-118.   Published online March 4, 2019
Inappropriate antibiotic use is the most important factor causing increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics, thus affecting patient outcomes. Multidrug-resistant bacteria have become a serious public health threat, causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Korea, the burden of antibioticresistant bacteria has become an important public health issue. There is increasing evidence of overuse and misuse of antibiotics in Korea, as...
Infection
Central line-associated bloodstream infections in neonates
Hye Jung Cho, Hye-Kyung Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(3):79-84.   Published online December 19, 2018
Newborn infants, including premature infants, are high-risk patients susceptible to various microorganisms. Catheter-related bloodstream infections are the most common type of nosocomial infections in this population. Regular education and training of medical staffs are most important as a preventive strategy for central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs). Bundle approaches and the use of checklists during the insertion and maintenance of central...
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Renal replacement therapy in neonates with an inborn error of metabolism
Heeyeon Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(2):43-47.   Published online November 7, 2018
Hyperammonemia can be caused by several genetic inborn errors of metabolism including urea cycle defects, organic acidemias, fatty acid oxidation defects, and certain disorders of amino acid metabolism. High levels of ammonia are extremely neurotoxic, leading to astrocyte swelling, brain edema, coma, severe disability, and even death. Thus, emergency treatment for hyperammonemia must be initiated before a precise diagnosis is...
Allergy
Particulate matter and childhood allergic diseases
Song-I Yang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2019;62(1):22-29.   Published online November 7, 2018
Particulate matter (PM) is a ubiquitous air pollutant that is a growing public health concern. Previous studies have suggested that PM is associated with asthma development and exacerbation of asthma symptoms. Although several studies have suggested increased risks of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and allergic sensitization in relation to PM exposure, the evidence remains inconsistent. The plausible mechanisms underlying these...
Endocrinology
The adiposity rebound in the 21st century children: meaning for what?
Min Jae Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(12):375-380.   Published online December 6, 2018
With the increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity worldwide, early adiposity rebound, which is known to have a strong association with obesity, has recently been a focus of research. Early adiposity rebound is conventionally known to have a close relationship with non-communicable diseases. However, novel insights into early adiposity rebound have implied an acceleration of growth and puberty,...
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Acute kidney injury and continuous renal replacement therapy in children; what pediatricians need to know
Myung Hyun Cho, Hee Gyung Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(11):339-347.   Published online October 23, 2018
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by abrupt deterioration of renal function, and its diagnosis relies on creatinine measurements and urine output. AKI is associated with higher morbidity and mortality, and is a risk factor for development of chronic kidney disease. There is no proven medication for AKI. Therefore, prevention and early detection are important. Physicians should be aware of...
Endocrinology
Understanding of type 1 diabetes mellitus: what we know and where we go
Chong Kun Cheon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(10):307-314.   Published online October 4, 2018
The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in children and adolescents is increasing worldwide. Combined effects of genetic and environmental factors cause T1DM, which make it difficult to predict whether an individual will inherit the disease. Due to the level of self-care necessary in T1DM maintenance, it is crucial for pediatric settings to support achieving optimal glucose control, especially...
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Transfusion practice in neonates
Do-Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(9):265-270.   Published online September 6, 2018
Neonates, especially extremely low birth weight infants, are among the groups of patients undergoing transfusion frequently. Since they are exposed to higher specific transfusion risks compared to the patients of other age groups, there are many special aspects that must be considered for transfusion therapy in neonates. The transfusion risks in neonates include adverse outcomes specific for preterm infants as...
Review article
Nutrition
Prevalence of underweight and wasting in Iranian children aged below 5 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Yousef Moradi, Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Kamyar Mansori, Shiva Mansouri Hanis, Rozhin Khateri, Hossein Mirzaei
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(8):231-238.   Published online August 15, 2018

Purpose: Wasting and underweight are the 2 main indicators of children’s undernutrition. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of undernutrition at the national level in Iran. Methods: We performed a search for original articles published in international and Iranian databases including MEDLINE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, CINHAL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Scientific Information Database, Irandoc,...
Review Article
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Pediatric kidney transplantation is different from adult kidney transplantation
Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(7):205-209.   Published online July 15, 2018
Kidney transplantation (KT) is the gold standard for renal replacement therapy in pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease. Recently, it has been observed that the outcome of pediatric KT is nearly identical to that in adults owing to the development and application of a variety of immunosuppressants and newer surgical techniques. However, owing to several differences in characteristics between children...
Gastroenterology
Esophageal perforation in children: etiology and management, with special reference to endoscopic esophageal perforation
Krishna Kumar Govindarajan
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(6):175-179.   Published online June 25, 2018

Perforation of the esophagus is an uncommon problem with significant morbidity and mortality. In children undergoing endoscopy, the risk of perforation is higher when interventional endoscopy is performed. The clinical features depend upon the site of esophageal perforation. Opinions vary regarding the optimal treatment protocol, and the role of conservative management in this context is not well established. Esophageal perforation...

General Pediatrics
The 2017 Korean National Growth Charts for children and adolescents: development, improvement, and prospects
Jae Hyun Kim, Sungha Yun, Seung-sik Hwang, Jung Ok Shim, Hyun Wook Chae, Yeoun Joo Lee, Ji Hyuk Lee, Soon Chul Kim, Dohee Lim, Sei Won Yang, Kyungwon Oh, Jin Soo Moon; for the Committee for the Development of Growth Standards for Korean Children and Adolescents, the Committee for School Health and Public Health Statistics; the Committee for School Health and Public Health Statistics; the Korean Pediatric Society, and Division of Health and Nutrition Survey; Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(5):135-149.   Published online May 28, 2018

Growth charts are curves or tables that facilitate the visualization of anthropometric parameters, and are widely used as an important indicator when evaluating the growth status of children and adolescents. The latest version of the Korean National Growth Charts released in 2007 has raised concerns regarding the inclusion of data from both breastfed and formula-fed infants, higher body mass index...

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