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Clinical Lecture
Benign Arrhythmias in Infants and Children
Jae Kon Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2005;48(1):1-5.   Published online January 15, 2005
Pediatricians often encounter some electrocardiographic abnormalities in infants and children. However, treatment or referral to pediatric cardiologist is not indicated for all arrhythmias. Many of them are benign in nature. Benign arrhythmias can be defined as the arrhythmias that no serious problem currently exists and no treatment is needed. The prognosis of benign arrhythmias is so good that the condition...
Treatment of Immue Thrombocytopenic Purpura in Childhood
Hwang Min Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(12):1262-1265.   Published online December 15, 2004
Childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP) is a typically benign self-limiting bleeding disorder of not fully known autoimmune etiology. Chronic ITP, which is defined by duration of more than 6 months, occurs in approximately 20% of children. Neither the risk of bleeding nor the type of disease, acute or chronic, can be predicted at initial presentation. The indication of treatment, choice...
Hematuria in Children
Ja Wook Koo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(12):1255-1261.   Published online December 15, 2004
The detection of even microscopic amounts of blood in a child's urine, whether accompanied by symptoms or asymptomatic, alarms the patient, parents, and physician, and often prompts the performance of many laboratory studies. Hematuria is one of the most important signs of renal or bladder disease, but proteinuria is a more important diagnostic and prognostic finding, except in the case...
Neurological Examination after the Newborn Period until 3 Years of Age
Soonhak Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(11):1142-1148.   Published online November 15, 2004
The children should not be regarded as miniature adults since they are in the dynamic process of growth and development. Among many pediatric problems, the developmental delay may be central to them. For this reason, primary care physicians, especially pediatricians should be able to manage children with probable developmental delays because early detection and treatment of developmental delay or neurological...
Medical Lecture Course
Role of Mast Cells in Allergic Inflammation and Innate Immunity
Kangmo Ahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(11):1137-1141.   Published online November 15, 2004
Mast cells play a key role in elicitation of the early-phase and late-phase IgE-mediated allergic inflammatory reactions. Mast cells are derived from pluripotent stem cells from the bone marrow. These cells migrate through circulation into connective tissues and mucosal surfaces where they mature. On the cell surfaces, mast cells have high affinity IgE receptor(FcεRI), which react with specific IgE to...
Clinical Lecture
Clinical Approach to the Children with Coagulation Deficiencies
Sang Kyu Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(10):1036-1040.   Published online October 15, 2004
This review deals with the coagulation deficiencies which are due to the abnormality in one of three hemostatic systems. It explains about the diagnostic examinations that should be done to differentiate for patients with bleeding tendency and the things to consider when preoperative screening tests for coagulation are abnormal.
Medical Lecture Course
Factors Involved in Lung Development and Alveolarization
Min Soo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(10):1031-1035.   Published online October 15, 2004
Lung development is a sum of processes that involve harmonized orchestration of expressions of various factors in time and space. The mastermind governing these phenomena is not known, but cumulative efforts so far have helped us gain some insights as to what are involved in and how complex the developmental process is. Beginning as primitive foregut, lungs undergo processes called...
Clinical Lecture
Acquired Thyroid Disorders in Childhood
Ho-Seong Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(9):926-932.   Published online September 15, 2004
Thyroid hormones influence growth and development, oxygen consumption, heat production, nerve function, and metabolism, thus play a critical role as a regulator of nervous system myelination, of growth and of puberty. Disorders affecting thyroid function may cause irreversible and permanent nervous system damage and developmental delay, especially in early infancy. Appropriate medical care of children with thyroid disorders requires refined...
Medical Lecture Course
Regulatory T Cells and Allogeneic Transplantation
Dae Chul Jeong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(9):919-925.   Published online September 15, 2004
Allogeneic organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(HSCT) is the treatment of choice for end-stage organ diseases or various hematologic disorders. The induction of alloantigen specific T cell tolerance and its maintenance are critical for preventing immune responses, including graft rejection or graft-versus-host disease(GVHD) in allogeneic transplantation. CD4+ T cells are classified as immune functions : Th1 CD4+ cells for cellular...
Clinical Lecture
The Pharmacotherapy of Childhood Epilepsy
Sang Ook Nam
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(8):821-826.   Published online August 15, 2004
Epilepsy is one of the most common and disabling neurologic disorders in childhood. The primary goal of epilepsy treatment is to choose the treatment modality that provides the best chance of improving the patient's quality of life. In addition to classic antiepileptic drugs, newly developed antiepileptic drugs ketogenic diet, epilepsy surgery, and vagal nerve stimulation have improved the ability to...
Medical Lecture Course
Impact of Host Genetics on Susceptibility and Outcome of Viral Infections
Eun Hwa Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(8):815-820.   Published online August 15, 2004
The generation of a draft sequence of the human genome has lead to an opportunity to characterize human diversity, including the differences in host response to numerous pathogens. Host responses upon exposure to a pathogen can determine the wide spectrum of illness from subclinical or mild to severe diseases. Host factors, particularly genetic backgrounds, influence the pathogenesis of infectious diseases....
Clinical Lecture
About the Reformed Medical Terms
In Seok Lim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(7):716-718.   Published online July 15, 2004
Concerning our medical history, the importance of medical terms has been neglected for a long time. In addition, medical terminologies are unaccustomed to the patients including the public. The separation of communications between the public and medical participants has been enlarged more and more. The importance of terms which can be easily recognized, comfortable to the ear, and familiar to...
Pathophysiology of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn
Yong Hoon Jun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(7):707-715.   Published online July 15, 2004
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn(PPHN) is a disorder characterized by persistence of the pattern of fetal circulation after birth due to a sustained elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance. The two primary events in the pathophysiology of neonatal pulmonary hypertension are hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction(HPV) and hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling(HPR). Chronic hypoxemia may cause increased muscularity of the pulmonary arteries and...
Medical Lecture Course
Recurrent Early-Life Seizures and Changes in GABAA Receptors Expression in Hippocampus
Doo Kwun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(6):596-603.   Published online June 15, 2004
The immature brain differs from the adult brain in its susceptibility to seizures, seizure characteristics, and responses to antiepileptic drugs. Gamma(γ)-aminobutyric acid(GABA) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain. GABA exerts its main action through GABAA receptors, which are coupled to a ligand-gated chloride channel. The receptor protein is a pentameric structure composed of multiple subunits of different...
Clinical Lecture
New Guideline of Pediatric Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Yong Won Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(6):591-595.   Published online June 15, 2004
A primary cardiac arrest is rare in children. The usual course begins with respiratory arrest and culminates in profound bradycardia or asystole and cardiovascular collapse, so it is vitally important to quickly restore ventilation in pediatric patients(phone-fast). Children over 8 years of age follow the same sequence as adults; that is calling emergency medical services before providing rescue breathing(phone-first).
Medical Lecture Course
Renal Transport Proteins Involved in Urinary Concentrating Mechanism
Dong Un Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(5):480-484.   Published online May 15, 2004
Renal tubule and vasa recta are arranged in complex but specific anatomic relationships and the production of a concentrated urine is achieved by countercurrent multiplication mechanism in the renal medulla. This model requires that the ascending thin limb is highly permeable to NaCl but impermeable to water, while the descending thin limb is impermeable to NaCl but highly permeable to...
Clinical Lecture
Detection and Diagnosis of Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases
Youn-Soo Hahn
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(5):475-479.   Published online May 15, 2004
Primary immunodeficiency diseases result from innate defects of immune system. As a consequence, recurrent viral, bactrial, fungal, and protozoal infections of varying severity ensue. Although primary immunodeficiency diseases are relatively rare, intensive study of these disorder has expanded our understanding of immunity. Recent progress in immunobiology and genetics has identified the causes of many of the primary immunodeficiency diseases. Diagnosis...
A Clinical Approach to Failure to Gain Weight in Infants
Jin-Bok Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(4):355-361.   Published online April 15, 2004
Failure to thrive is a term used to describe growth failure in infants and young children that may be accompanied by retarded social and motor achievements. The three categories of failure to thrive is based on anthropometric measurements of weight, length, and head circumference for age. Type 1 category, inadequate growth or loss of body weight with relatively normal height...
Clinical Lecture
Cognitive Dysfunction in Children
Eun Sook Suh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(4):351-354.   Published online April 15, 2004
Cognition is a broad term that include a range of abilities such as memory, perception, attention, organization, planning, problem solving abilities and the perception of another person's unconscious motivation. Cognitive dysfunction is an abnormality of the central nervous system, manifest during the developmental period, which result significant life long impairment. The neurologic assessment of the delayed or retarded child emphasizes...
Food Allergy
Soo-Young Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(3):240-246.   Published online March 15, 2004
Food allergy is one of the clinical clusters due to food-induced allergic inflammation against dietary proteins which induced by IgE-mediated and/or non-IgE mediated mechanisms. Food allergic reactions are responsible for a variety of clinical symptoms involving the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. Sometimes the life threatening anaphylactic reactions would be induced, especially by peanuts, tree nuts and buckwheat allergy....
Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children : Recommendations for Diagnosis and Treatment
Yon Ho Choe
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(3):235-239.   Published online March 15, 2004
Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infection is mainly acquired in childhood. The prevalence of infection is still highest in children in the developing world. There has been a need for clinical guidelines for H. pylori infection in children. Therefore, the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition and the European Paediatric Task Force on H. pylori achieved consensus and developed clinical...
Medical Lecture Course
Developmental Disabilities in Children
Hee Jung Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(2):131-139.   Published online February 15, 2004
Despite the 5-10% prevalence of developmental disability, the early identification for such problems remains difficult. Pediatricians tried to diagnose developmental delay early to promote early intervention and thus to reduce long-term disability in these patients. Identification of a delayed young child by routine pediatric screening mandates a careful search for an underlying etiology. Accurate etiologic determination, despite the fact that...
Perinatal Hepatitis B Virus Infection - Viral Factors in the Mechanism of Perinatal Immunoprophylaxis Failure -
Jong-Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(2):123-130.   Published online February 15, 2004
Perinatal hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection may occur despite combined immunoprophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and vaccines. Although the mechanism of perinatal prophylaxis still has been obscure, it could be due to : in utero infection; host factors as the personal immunological differences of HLA or cytokine gene; viral factors as a high maternal HBV-DNA level or the presence of surface...
Innate Immunity and Toll Like Receptors
Kyung Hyo Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(1):6-11.   Published online January 15, 2004
Clinical Lecture
Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in Pediatrics
Hyewon Hahn, Young Seo Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2004;47(1):1-5.   Published online January 15, 2004
Recent Advance of Interventional Catheterization in Congenital Heart Disease
I-Seok Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(12):1178-1185.   Published online December 15, 2003
Growth Assessment and Diagnosis of Growth Disorders in Childhood
Kee Hyoung Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(12):1171-1177.   Published online December 15, 2003
Early Detection of Atypical Kawasaki Disease
Ji Whan Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(11):1055-1060.   Published online November 15, 2003
Medical Lecture Course
Usefulness and Limitation of Mouse Asthma Model
Dong-Keun Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(10):952-957.   Published online October 15, 2003
Clinical Lecture
Dendritic Cell-Based Cancer Immunotherapy
Hyeon Jin Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2003;46(10):947-951.   Published online October 15, 2003
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