Original article

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Infection
A contact investigation after exposure to a child with disseminated tuberculosis mimicking inflammatory bowel disease
Dongsub Kim, Sodam Lee, Sang-Hee Kang, Mi-Sun Park, So-Young Yoo, Tae Yeon Jeon, Joon-Sik Choi, Bora Kim, Jong Rim Choi, Sun Young Cho, Doo Ryeon Chung, Yon Ho Choe, Yae-Jean Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(11):366-370.   Published online November 15, 2018
Purpose: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most important diseases that cause significant mortality and morbidity in young children. Data on TB transmission from an infected child are limited. Herein, we report a case of disseminated TB in a child and conducted a contact investigation among exposed individuals. Methods: A 4-year-old child without Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination was diagnosed as having culture-proven...
Cardiology
The change of QRS duration after pulmonary valve replacement in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary regurgitation
Yuni Yun, Yeo Hyang Kim, Jung Eun Kwon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(11):362-365.   Published online October 24, 2018
Purpose: This study aimed to analyze changes in QRS duration and cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) following pulmonary valve replacement (PVR) in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Methods: Children and adolescents who had previously undergone total repair for TOF (n=67; median age, 16 years) who required elective PVR for pulmonary regurgitation and/or right ventricular out tract obstruction were included in this study....
Neurology
Clinical manifestations of headache in children younger than 7 years
Bu Seon Kang, Jinsun Lee, Jin Hyuk Choi, Hyeok Hee Kwon, Joon Won Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(11):355-361.   Published online September 16, 2018
Purpose: Headache is a common symptom during childhood. It is usually persistent and requires special care. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of headache in children
Allergy
Common features of atopic dermatitis with hypoproteinemia
So Yoon Jo, Chan-Ho Lee, Woo-Jin Jung, Sung-Won Kim, Yoon-Ha Hwang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(11):348-354.   Published online September 16, 2018
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the causes, symptoms, and complications of hypoproteinemia to prevent hypoproteinemia and provide appropriate treatment to children with atopic dermatitis. Methods: Children diagnosed with atopic dermatitis with hypoproteinemia and/or hypoalbuminemia were retrospectively reviewed. The patients’ medical records, including family history, weight, symptoms, treatment, complications, and laboratory test results for allergies and skin cultures,...
Neurology
Comparison of conservative therapy and steroid therapy for Bell’s palsy in children
Hye Won Yoo, Lira Yoon, Hye Young Kim, Min Jung Kwak, Kyung Hee Park, Mi Hye Bae, Yunjin Lee, Sang Ook Nam, Young Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(10):332-337.   Published online September 12, 2018
Purpose: Bell’s palsy is characterized by sudden onset of unilateral facial weakness. The use of corticosteroids for childhood Bell’s palsy is controversial. This study aimed to identify clinical characteristics, etiology, and laboratory findings in childhood Bell’s palsy, and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroid treatment. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of children under 19 years of age treated for Bell’s...
Nephrology (Genitourinary)
Renal involvement in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease
Hea Min Jang, Hee Sun Baek, Jung-Eun Kim, Ju Young Kim, Yeon Hee Lee, Hee Yeon Cho, Yon Ho Choe, Ben Kang, Byung-Ho Choe, Bong Seok Choi, Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(10):327-331.   Published online September 12, 2018
Purpose: The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rapidly increasing, and several reports have described the renal complications of IBD. We sought to evaluate the clinical manifestations of renal complications in children with IBD in order to enable early detection and prompt treatment of the complications. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 456 children and adolescents aged
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Evaluation of prolonged pain in preterm infants with pneumothorax using heart rate variability analysis and EDIN (Échelle Douleur Inconfort Nouveau-Né, neonatal pain and discomfort scale) scores
Mehmet Buyuktiryaki, Nurdan Uras, Nilufer Okur, Mehmet Yekta Oncel, Gulsum Kadioglu Simsek, Sehribanu Ozluer Isik, Serife Suna Oguz
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(10):322-326.   Published online September 16, 2018
Purpose: The EDIN scale (Échelle Douleur Inconfort Nouveau-Né, neonatal pain and discomfort scale) and heart rate variability has been used for the evaluation of prolonged pain. The aim of our study was to assess the value of the newborn infant parasympathetic evaluation (NIPE) index and EDIN scale for the evaluation of prolonged pain in preterm infants with chest tube placement...
Transient intubation for surfactant administration in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in extremely premature infants
Ji Won Koh, Jong-Wan Kim, Young Pyo Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(10):315-321.   Published online September 16, 2018
Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of transient intubation for surfactant administration and extubated to nasal continuous positive pressure (INSURE) for treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and to identify the factors associated with INSURE failure in extremely premature infants. Methods: Eighty-four infants with gestational age less than 28 weeks treated with surfactant administration for RDS for 8 years were included. Perinatal...
Pulmonology
The changes of prevalence and etiology of pediatric pneumonia from National Emergency Department Information System in Korea, between 2007 and 2014
Eun Ju Shin, Yunsun Kim, Jin-Young Jeong, Yu Mi Jung, Mi-Hee Lee, Eun Hee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(9):291-300.   Published online September 15, 2018
Purpose: Understanding changes in pathogen and pneumonia prevalence among pediatric pneumonia patients is important for the prevention of infectious diseases. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data of children younger than 18 years diagnosed with pneumonia at 117 Emergency Departments in Korea between 2007 and 2014. Results: Over the study period, 329,380 pediatric cases of pneumonia were identified. The most frequent age group was...
Infection
Usefulness of the procalcitonin test in young febrile infants between 1 and 3 months of age
In Sul Lee, Young Jin Park, Mi Hyeon Jin, Ji Young Park, Hae Jeong Lee, Sung Hoon Kim, Ju Suk Lee, Cheol Hong Kim, Young Don Kim, Jun Hwa Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(9):285-290.   Published online September 15, 2018
Purpose: To study the usefulness of the procalcitonin (PCT) test in young febrile infants between 1 and 3 months of age. Methods: We evaluated the medical records of 336 febrile infants between 1 and 3 months of age who visited the Emergency Department or outpatient department of Samsung Changwon Hospital from May 2015 to February 2017, and analyzed the clinical characteristics...
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Oral findings and its association with prenatal and perinatal factors in newborns
Brenda Perez-Aguirre, Uriel Soto-Barreras, Juan Pablo Loyola-Rodriguez, Juan Francisco Reyes-Macias, Miguel Angel Santos-Diaz, Alejandra Loyola-Leyva, Obed Garcia-Cortes
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(9):279-284.   Published online September 15, 2018
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the frequency of abnormalities in the newborn oral cavity and to evaluate the association with prenatal and perinatal factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated 2,216 newborns. Oral findings were assessed in the first 24 hours of life using visual examination. Sex, weight, length, gestational age, and medical disorders at birth were recorded. Maternal demographic and...
Cardiology
Change of voltage-gated potassium channel 1.7 expressions in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension rat model
Hyeryon Lee, Kwan Chang Kim, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(9):271-278.   Published online September 15, 2018
Purpose: Abnormal potassium channels expression affects vessel function, including vascular tone and proliferation rate. Diverse potassium channels, including voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, are involved in pathological changes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Since the role of the Kv1.7 channel in PAH has not been previously studied, we investigated whether Kv1.7 channel expression changes in the lung tissue of a monocrotaline...
Pulmonology
Increased procalcitonin level is a risk factor for prolonged fever in children with Mycoplasma pneumonia
Ji Eun Jeong, Ji Eun Soh, Ji Hee Kwak, Hye Lim Jung, Jae Won Shim, Deok Soo Kim, Moon Soo Park, Jung Yeon Shim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(8):258-263.   Published online August 15, 2018
Purpose: Macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is characterized by prolonged fever and radiological progression despite macrolide treatment. Few studies have examined serum procalcitonin (PCT) level in children with MPP. We aimed to investigate the association of acute inflammation markers including PCT with clinical parameters in children with MPP. Methods: A total of 147 children were recruited. The diagnosis of MPP...
General Pediatrics
Use of child safety seats during transportation of newborns
Seon Hyuk Kim, Sung Won Park, Yeon Kyung Lee, Sun Young Ko, Son Moon Shin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(8):253-257.   Published online August 15, 2018
Purpose: Child safety seats (CSS) are critical for the protection of children, in case of motor vehicle accidents. Although the national legislation mandates that all newborns must be placed in an appropriately installed CSS during transportation, people often do not perceive the importance of CSS and do not use it as recommended. The purpose of this survey was to understand...
Neonatology (Perinatology)
Patterns of ischemic injury on brain images in neonatal group B Streptococcal meningitis
Seo Yeol Choi, Jong-Wan Kim, Ji Won Ko, Young Seok Lee, Young Pyo Chang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2018;61(8):245-252.   Published online August 15, 2018
Purpose: This study investigated patterns of ischemic injury observed in brain images from patients with neonatal group B Streptococcal (GBS) meningitis. Methods: Clinical findings and brain images from eight term or near-term newborn infants with GBS meningitis were reviewed. Results: GBS meningitis was confirmed in all 8 infants via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and patients tested positive for GBS in both blood and CSF cultures....

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