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Original Article
High degree of supervision improves adherence to inhaled corticosteroids in children with asthma
Geun Mi Park, Hye Won Han, Hee Se Kim, Jae Youn Kim, Eun Lee, Hyun-Ju Cho, Song-I Yang, Young-Ho Jung, Soo-Jong Hong, Hyung Young Kim, Ju-Hee Seo, Jinho Yu
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(12):472-477.   Published online December 22, 2015
Purpose

Adherence to treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) is a critical determinant of asthma control. The objective of this study was to assess factors that determine adherence to ICS therapy in children with asthma.

Methods

Fifty-eight children with asthma, aged 5 to 16 years, used ICS with or without a spacer for 3 months. Adherence rates as measured from questionnaires and canisters, asthma...

Parental satisfaction with pediatric emergency care: a nationwide, cross-sectional survey in Korea
Hye Young Jang, Young Ho Kwak, Ju Ok Park, Do Kyun Kim, Jin Hee Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(12):466-471.   Published online December 22, 2015
Purpose

This study attempted to examine parental satisfaction with pediatric emergency care (PEC) in Korea and investigate the features influencing overall satisfaction.

Methods

A nationwide, cross-sectional survey was conducted among parents who had taken their children to an Emergency Department (ED) in the three years prior to the study. A 21-item, structured questionnaire was administered to the parents through a web-based system. Participants'...

Analysis of clinical information and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for early diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis
Dahee Jin, Tae Hoon Heo, Jung Hye Byeon, Gun-Ha Kim, Mi Kyung Kim, So-Hee Eun, Baik-Lin Eun
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(11):446-450.   Published online November 22, 2015
Purpose

Meningitis is among the most common infections affecting the central nervous system. It can be difficult to determine the exact pathogen responsible for the infection and patients are often treated with empiric antibiotics. This study was conducted to identify the most common clinical characteristics of enteroviral meningitis in children and evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...

Analysis of clinical characteristics and causes of chest pain in children and adolescents
Ji Hye Chun, Tae Hyeong Kim, Mi Young Han, Na Yeon Kim, Kyung Lim Yoon
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(11):440-445.   Published online November 22, 2015
Purpose

Chest pain is common in children and adolescents and is a reason for referral to pediatric cardiologists. Although most cases of chest pain in these age groups are benign and do not require treatment, timely diagnosis is important not to miss life-threatening diseases requiring prompt treatment. We investigated certain clinical characteristics that may be useful in the diagnosis of such...

Sensorineural hearing loss in patients with Kawasaki disease
Sun Young Park, Young Hyun Kim, Yeo Hyang Kim, Myung Chul Hyun, Young Hwan Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(11):434-439.   Published online November 22, 2015
Purpose

Kawasaki disease involves acute febrile systemic vasculitis that can cause a variety of symptoms by affecting various organs. Here, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence, causes, and prognosis of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) occurring in children with Kawasaki disease.

Methods

Patients who were diagnosed with Kawasaki disease and received inpatient treatment in the Pediatrics Department at one of three university hospitals in...

Severe vitamin D deficiency in preterm infants: maternal and neonatal clinical features
Sook-Hyun Park, Gi-Min Lee, Jung-Eun Moon, Heng-Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(11):427-433.   Published online November 22, 2015
Purpose

We investigated the vitamin D status of preterm infants to determine the incidence of vitamin D deficiency.

Methods

A total of 278 preterm infants delivered at Kyungpook National University Hospital between January 2013 and May 2015 were enrolled. The serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) were measured at birth. We collected maternal and neonatal data such as...

Usefulness of serum cystatin C to determine the dose of vancomycin in neonate
Jeong Eun Shin, Soon Min Lee, Ho Seon Eun, Min Soo Park, Kook In Park, Ran Namgung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(11):421-426.   Published online November 22, 2015
Purpose

The vancomycin dosage regimen is regularly modified according to the patient's glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In the present study, we aimed to assess the usefulness of serum cystatin C (Cys-C) concentration, compared with serum creatinine (SCr) concentration, for predicting vancomycin clearance (CLvcm) in neonates.

Methods

We retrospectively analyzed the laboratory data of 50 term neonates who were admitted to the neonatal intensive...

Low levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 at birth may be associated with subsequent development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants
Choae Lee, Jaewoo An, Ji Hee Kim, Eun Sun Kim, Soo Hyun Kim, Yeon Kyung Cho, Dong Hyun Cha, Man Yong Han, Kyu Hyung Lee, Youn Ho Sheen
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(11):415-420.   Published online November 22, 2015
Purpose

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is characterized by inflammation with proteolytic damage to the lung extracellular matrix. The results from previous studies are inconsistent regarding the role of proteinases and antiproteinases in the development of BPD. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-2, and TIMP-1 levels in the serum of...

Alagille syndrome and a JAG1 mutation: 41 cases of experience at a single center
Kyung Jin Ahn, Ja Kyoung Yoon, Gi Beom Kim, Bo Sang Kwon, Jung Min Go, Jin Su Moon, Eun Jung Bae, Chung Il Noh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(10):392-397.   Published online October 21, 2015
Purpose

Alagille syndrome is a complex hereditary disorder that is associated with cardiac, hepatic, skeletal, ocular, and facial abnormalities. Mutations in the Notch signaling pathway, such as in JAG1 and NOTCH2, play a key role in embryonic development. A cardiac or hepatic presentation is a critical factor for determining the prognosis.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective study of 41 patients with Alagille syndrome...

Prognostic factors in children with extracranial germ cell tumors treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy
Jinsup Kim, Na Hee Lee, Soo Hyun Lee, Keon Hee Yoo, Ki Woong Sung, Hong Hoe Koo, Jeong-Meen Seo, Suk-Koo Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(10):386-391.   Published online October 21, 2015
Purpose

To evaluate the outcomes and prognostic factors in children with extracranial germ cell tumors (GCTs) treated at a single institution.

Methods

Sixty-six children diagnosed with extracranial GCTs between 1996 and 2012 were included in the study. Primary treatment was surgical excision, followed by six cycles of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The survival rates were compared according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Cooperative Group...

Clinical characteristics of children and adolescents with croup and epiglottitis who visited 146 Emergency Departments in Korea
Doo Ri Lee, Chang Hyu Lee, Youn Kyung Won, Dong In Suh, Eui-Jung Roh, Mi-Hee Lee, Eun Hee Chung
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(10):380-385.   Published online October 21, 2015
Purpose

Croup is a common pediatric respiratory illness with symptoms of varying severity. Moreover, epiglottitis is a rare disease that can rapidly progress to life-threatening airway obstruction. Although the clinical course and treatments differ between croup and epiglottitis, they are difficult to differentiate on presentation. We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics of croup and epiglottitis in Emergency Department patients.

Methods

The 2012...

Uveitis as an important ocular sign to help early diagnosis in Kawasaki disease
Han Seul Choi, Seul Bee Lee, Jung Hyun Kwon, Hae Soon Kim, Sejung Sohn, Young Mi Hong
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(10):374-379.   Published online October 21, 2015
Purpose

Incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD) is frequently associated with delayed diagnosis and treatment. Delayed diagnosis leads to increasing risk of coronary artery aneurysm. Anterior uveitis is an important ocular sign of KD. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in laboratory findings, including echocardiographic measurements, clinical characteristics such as fever duration and treatment responses between KD patients with and...

Diagnostic characteristics of supplemental laboratory criteria for incomplete Kawasaki disease in children with complete Kawasaki disease
Hyun Ok Jun, Jeong Jin Yu, So Yeon Kang, Chang Deok Seo, Jae Suk Baek, Young-Hwue Kim, Jae-Kon Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(10):369-373.   Published online October 21, 2015
Purpose

In 2004, the American Heart Association (AHA) had published an algorithm for the diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease (KD). The aim of the present study was to investigate characteristics of supplemental laboratory criteria in this algorithm.

Methods

We retrospectively examined the medical records of 355 patients with KD who were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) during the acute phase of the disease....

The efficacy and safety of Montelukast sodium in the prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Sang Bum Kim, Jang Hoon Lee, Juyoung Lee, Seung Han Shin, Ho Sun Eun, Soon Min Lee, Jin A Sohn, Han Suk Kim, Byung Min Choi, Min Soo Park, Kook In Park, Ran Namgung, Moon Sung Park
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(9):347-353.   Published online September 21, 2015
Purpose

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Montelukast sodium in the prevention of bronchopulmonarydysplasia (BPD).

Methods

The Interventional study was designed as a multicenter, prospective, and randomized trial, with open labeled and parallel-experimental groups, 66 infants were enrolled and allocated to either the case group (n=30) or the control group (n=36) based on gestational age (GA)....

Evaluation of new American Academy of Pediatrics guideline for febrile urinary tract infection
Da Min Choi, Tae Hoon Heo, Hyung Eun Yim, Kee Hwan Yoo
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(9):341-346.   Published online September 21, 2015
Purpose

To evaluate the practical applications of the diagnosis algorithms recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics urinary tract infection (UTI) guideline.

Methods

We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of febrile UTI patients aged between 2 and 24 months. The patients were divided into 3 groups: group I (patients with positive urine culture and urinalysis findings), group II (those with positive urine culture...

Change in the height of Korean children and adolescents: analysis from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey II and V
Na Yung Ryoo, Ha Young Shin, Jae Hyun Kim, Jin Soo Moon, Chong Guk Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(9):336-340.   Published online September 21, 2015
Purpose

The mean adult height of Koreans has increased since nationwide anthropological measurements began in 1967. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in heights of Korean late adolescents and young adults within and between the Second and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES II and V).

Methods

Koreans aged ≤22 years with available measurements of height were...

Food allergen sensitization in young children with typical signs and symptoms of immediate-type food allergies: a comparison between monosensitized and polysensitized children
Na Yeon Kim, Ga Ram Kim, Joon Hwan Kim, Ji Hyeon Baek, Jung Won Yoon, Hye Mi Jee, Hye Sung Baek, Yong Ho Jung, Sun Hee Choi, Ki Eun Kim, Youn Ho Shin, Hye Yung Yum, Man Yong Han, Kyu-Earn Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(9):330-335.   Published online September 21, 2015
Purpose

The clinical interpretation of children sensitized to allergens is challenging, particularly in children with food allergies. We aimed to examine clinical differences between children with monosensitization and those with polysensitization to common food allergens and to determine risk factors for polysensitization in young children <10 years of age with immediate-type food allergies.

Methods

The study included children <10 years of age with...

Vitamin D serum levels in children with allergic and vasomotor rhinitis
Seung Jin Lee, Bong Hwa Kang, Bong Seok Choi
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(9):325-329.   Published online September 21, 2015
Purpose

In addition to regulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and bone metabolism, vitamin D is known as an immune modulator. Recently, there has been increased worldwide interest in the association between low levels of vitamin D and allergic diseases. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and allergic/vasomotor rhinitis (AR/VR) in children.

Methods

This study...

Evaluation of three glucometers for whole blood glucose measurements at the point of care in preterm or low-birth-weight infants
Joon Ho Hwang, Yong-Hak Sohn, Seong-Sil Chang, Seung Yeon Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(8):301-308.   Published online August 21, 2015
Purpose

We evaluated three blood glucose self-monitoring for measuring whole blood glucose levels in preterm and low-birth-weight infants.

Methods

Between December 1, 2012 and March 31, 2013, 230 blood samples were collected from 50 newborns, who weighed, ≤2,300 g or were ≤36 weeks old, in the the neonatal intensive care unit of Eulji University Hospital. Three blood glucose self-monitoring (A: Precision Pcx, Abbott;...

Usefulness of pelvic ultrasonography for the diagnosis of central precocious puberty in girls
Jung Yu, Ha Young Shin, Sun Hee Lee, You Sung Kim, Jae Hyun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(8):294-300.   Published online August 21, 2015
Purpose

It is difficult to differentiate between central precocious puberty (CPP) and premature thelarche (PT) in girls. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic usefulness of pelvic ultrasonography to distinguish between CPP and PT in girls with early breast development.

Methods

This study included girls with early breast development who visited the clinic between January 2012 and December 2013. Clinical,...

Comparison of gastric and other bowel perforations in preterm infants: a review of 20 years' experience in a single institution
Do Kyung Lee, So Yeon Shim, Su Jin Cho, Eun Ae Park, Sun Wha Lee
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(8):288-293.   Published online August 21, 2015
Purpose

In this study, we aimed to review the clinical presentation of preterm infants with gastrointestinal perforations and compare the clinical features of gastric perforation with other intestinal perforations.

Methods

The medical records of preterm neonates with pneumoperitoneum, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) between January 1994 and December 2013, were retrospectively reviewed.

Results

Twenty-one preterm infants underwent exploratory laparotomy to investigate the...

Iron and vitamin D status in breastfed infants and their mothers
Yu Sun Kang, Joon Hwan Kim, Eun Hee Ahn, Eun-Gyong Yoo, Moon Kyu Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(8):283-287.   Published online August 21, 2015
Purpose

We assessed the relationships between iron and vitamin D statuses in breastfed infants and their mothers and evaluated the determinants of iron and vitamin D deficiencies in breastfed infants.

Methods

Seventy breastfed infants aged 4-24 months and their mothers participated in this study from February 2012 to May 2013. Complete blood counts, total iron binding capacity, and levels of C-reactive protein, iron,...

The corrected QT (QTc) prolongation in hyperthyroidism and the association of thyroid hormone with the QTc interval
Ye Seung Lee, Joong Wan Choi, Eun Ju Bae, Won Il Park, Hong Jin Lee, Phil Soo Oh
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(7):263-266.   Published online July 22, 2015
Purpose

Ventricular repolarization is assessed using the QT interval corrected by the heart rate (QTc) via an electrocardiogram (ECG). Prolonged QTc is associated with an increased risk of arrhythmias and cardiac mortality. As there have been few reports regarding the effects of hyperthyroidism on ventricular repolarization, we studied the association between serum free thyroxine (free T4 [fT4]) and thyroid stimulating hormone...

The strong association of left-side heart anomalies with Kabuki syndrome
Ja Kyoung Yoon, Kyung Jin Ahn, Bo Sang Kwon, Gi Beom Kim, Eun Jung Bae, Chung Il Noh, Jung Min Ko
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(7):256-262.   Published online July 22, 2015
Purpose

Kabuki syndrome is a multiple congenital malformation syndrome, with characteristic facial features, mental retardation, and skeletal and congenital heart anomalies. However, the cardiac anomalies are not well described in the Korean population. We analyzed the cardiac anomalies and clinical features of Kabuki syndrome in a single tertiary center.

Methods

A retrospective analysis was conducted for a total of 13 patients with Kabuki...

Applying the bacterial meningitis score in children with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis: a single center's experience
Jungpyo Lee, Hyeeun Kwon, Joon Soo Lee, Heung Dong Kim, Hoon-Chul Kang
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(7):251-255.   Published online July 22, 2015
Purpose

The widespread introduction of bacterial conjugate vaccines has decreased the risk of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis due to bacterial meningitis (BM) in children. However, most patients with CSF pleocytosis are hospitalized and treated with parenteral antibiotics for several days. The bacterial meningitis score (BMS) is a validated multivariate model derived from a pediatric population in the postconjugate vaccine era and...

Clinical risk factors associated with the development of wheezing in children less than 2 years of age who required hospitalization for viral lower respiratory tract infections
Joon Hwan Kim, Ji-Yeon Choi, Na Yeon Kim, Jin Woo Kim, Ji Hyeon Baek, Hye Sung Baek, Jung Won Yoon, Hye Mi Jee, Sun Hee Choi, Hyeung Yoon Kim, Ki Eun Kim, Youn Ho Shin, Man Yong Han
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(7):245-250.   Published online July 22, 2015
Purpose

Wheezing following viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) in children <2 years of age is an important risk factor for the development of asthma later in life; however, not all children with viral LRTIs develop wheezing. This study investigated risk factors for the development of wheezing during viral LRTIs requiring hospitalization.

Methods

The study included 142 children <2 years of age hospitalized...

Thyroid dysfunction in very low birth weight preterm infants
Ji Hoon Lee, Sung Woo Kim, Ga Won Jeon, Jong Beom Sin
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(6):224-229.   Published online June 22, 2015
Purpose

Thyroid dysfunction is common in preterm infants. Congenital hypothyroidism causes neurodevelopmental impairment, which is preventable if properly treated. This study was conducted to describe the characteristics of thyroid dysfunction in very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs), evaluate risk factors of hypothyroidism, and suggest the reassessment of thyroid function with an initially normal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as part of a newborn...

Cardiopulmonary function and scoliosis severity in idiopathic scoliosis children
Seokwon Huh, Lucy Yougmin Eun, Nam Kyun Kim, Jo Won Jung, Jae Young Choi, Hak Sun Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(6):218-223.   Published online June 22, 2015
Purpose

Idiopathic scoliosis is a structural lateral curvature of the spine of unknown etiology. The relationship between degree of spine curvature and cardiopulmonary function has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between scoliosis and cardiopulmonary characteristics.

Methods

Ninety children who underwent preoperative pulmonary or cardiac evaluation at a single spine institution over 41 months were...

Hepatitis associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in Korean children: a prospective study
Kyu Won Kim, Jae Jin Sung, Hann Tchah, Eell Ryoo, Hye Kyung Cho, Yong Han Sun, Kang Ho Cho, Dong Woo Son, In Sang Jeon, Yun Mi Kim
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(6):211-217.   Published online June 22, 2015
Purpose

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) infection is a major cause of respiratory infection in school-aged children. Extrapulmonary manifestations of MP infection are common, but liver involvement has been rarely reported. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of MP-associated hepatitis.

Methods

This prospective study included 1,044 pediatric patients with MP infection diagnosed serologically with MP IgM at one medical center...

Initial steroid regimen in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome can be shortened based on duration to first remission
Hee Sun Baek, Ki-Soo Park, Hee Gyung Kang, Cheol Woo Ko, Min Hyun Cho
Clin Exp Pediatr. 2015;58(6):206-210.   Published online June 22, 2015
Purpose

The use of a 12-week steroid regimen (long-term therapy, LT) for the first episode of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) reportedly induces a more sustained remission and lower relapse rate than previous regimens, including an 8-week steroid regimen (short-term therapy, ST). Here, we assessed the potential for selective application of 2 steroid regimens (LT vs. ST) based on the days to...

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